Chapter 2
11.
a) Mean is 2
b) Median is 2
c) Sum of square deviations is 56.
d) Variance is 2.666 or 2.7
e) Standard deviation is 1.632 or 1.6

12.
a) Mean is 1312.4 or 1312
b) Median is 1361
c) Sum of square deviations is 76092.2
d) Variance is 15218.44
e) Standard deviation is 123.363
13.
a) Mean is 3.166
b) Median is 3.25
c) Sum of square deviations is 0.44738
d) Variance is 0.074
e) Standard deviation is 0.272
16.
a) Governor-Mean is 43 and Standard deviation is 5.916
CEO- Mean is 44 and standard deviation is 10.954
b) In order to calculate the mean or average for the governors and CEO’s, I added together all the figures and divided that sum by 4 since there are 4 numbers. Calculate the standard deviation by getting the average of the average (mean) of the numbers. So the average of 43 for the governors is 5.916 and the average of 44 for the CEO’s is 10.954. c) Judging from the results we can see that the CEO’s have bigger desks than the governors. The difference between mean and standard deviation is that mean is the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores and standard deviation is the square root of the average of the squared deviations from the mean. 21

Chapter 3
14.
a) z (340) = (340-300)/20 = 40/20 = 2
b) z(310) = (310-300)/20 = 10/20 = .5
c) z(260) = (260-300)/20 = -40/20 = -2
Raw Scores
d) z = 2.4 score = 300 + 20 x 2.4 = 300 +48 = 348
e) z = 1.5 score = 3000 + 20 x 1.5 = 300 + 30 = 330
f) z = 0 , score = 300
g) z = -4.5 , score = 300 + 20 x -4.5 = 300 -90 = 210
15. z(81) = (81-50)/2 = 31/20 = 1.55, z(6.4) = (6.4-0)/5 = 1.28. So, the verbal ability test is higher. You need to figure this out by standardizing both scores by converting them to Z scores. 22.

a) It's a non-random sample because non-random samples are limited because they are not as representative of the population you're studying as random samples are....

...average, and even though the mean of the governor’s desks is only slightly lower than the CEO’s, the standard deviation is much larger. This shows that CEO’s desks are larger in square footage.
21. Descriptive statistics explanation
a. Explain results, using principles of concepts along with numbers, to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
This is a test that I believe many people have taken in their lifetime without even realizing what it is for. The pictures flash and the person is supposed to choose one quickly. There is a 50/50 chance of picking a black person over a white person in the pictures and there is a 50/50 chance of picking a gun over a tool. This is actually a test of prejudice and perception.
Chapter 3
14. Transformation of z scores and raw scores
a. Give the Z scores for the following raw scores:
raw score Z score
340 Z= {(340-300)]/20= 2
310 Z=[(310-300)]/20= .5
260 Z= [(260-300)]/20= -2
b. Give the raw scores for persons whose Z scores on this test are the following:
Z score raw score
2.4 2.4=(x-300)/20=(2.4)*20+300=x
X=348
1.5 1.5=(x-300)/20=(1.5)*20+300=x
X=330
0 0=(x-300)/20=(0)*20+300=x
X=300
-4.5 -4.5=(x-300)/20=(x-300)/20=(-4.5)*20+300=x
X=210
15. Calculate and explain descriptive statistics
a. Which is this person’s stronger ability: verbal or quantitative?
Z (81) = (81-50)/20=31/20=1.55 (verbal)
Z (6.4) = (6.4-0)5=1.28 (quantitative)
According to these results, the stronger...

...PSY 475 Week3IndividualAssignment Attitude Survey
Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you explain the steps you took to create your survey. Address the following items in your paper:
· Explain the purpose of the survey.
· Discuss the preliminary design issues you experienced in creating your survey. You are not giving the survey to participants.
Describe the specific instructions for administering, scoring, and interpreting your survey in your written paper.
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...Behavioral and Social/Cognitive Approaches to Forming Habits
As children, humans learn right from wrong through either punishment or praise by their parents. Depending on the action and accompanying reaction from their parents, a child may develop habits. According to Psychology Today, a habit is defined as an acquired behavior pattern regularly followed until it has become almost involuntary (Psychology Today, 2012). Some examples of habits are looking both ways before crossing the street, brushing one’s teeth before bedtime as well as drinking alcohol and/or smoking. Some habits are good, and some are bad. All habits are, however, a direct result of reinforcement. Reinforcement is an idea developed by B.F. Skinner, a psychologist famous for his studies of behaviorism. He stated that his own personality was the result of reinforcement to actions and beliefs as a child. “His life and personality, he claimed, were determined and controlled by environmental events.” (Friedman & Schustack, 2012)
Personally speaking, I have a few habits, some useful, some not as constructive. One of my most interesting and useless habits is always setting the volume at an even number. There is no logical explanation for this habit, and no advantage to setting the volume at twelve rather than eleven. It is simply something that I have always done. I do not remember when I picked up this habit but do know that my father had much to do with it. He is a very structured man, and I...

...
Research, Statistics, and Psychology
PSY/315
January 13, 2014
Research, Statistics, and Psychology
Humans and animals may have a vast number of similarities, but the one thing that sets humans apart is the unique ability to question. When psychologists look to find the answers to questions, they often turn to statistics. Gathering research to devise rational explanation is important to psychology; it is not only important, but the manner in which it is done is scientific. Psychologists use the scientific method to define, explain, predict and understand behavior. They also use numbers, and the research from numbers help to predict the probability of a possible reoccurrence. The stronger the data is in the research helps to validate the final outcome.
Research in science is an investigation that is bound by rules to establish rational explanation. The information used in scientific research should only be proven reputable information; untrustworthy information will result in faulty research. Research and the information gathered has to be represented with accuracy and without bias. There are three approaches to take to ensure research is sound (Camfield & Palmer-Jones, 2013). The first important manner to take into consideration is if the research derives from a philosophical approach. When asking a question it is imperative to understand the motivation behind comprehension using a rational thought process. The second vital...

...to handle one’s self during those critical times yields a more positive outlook on how well they can do their jobs. Is it at that point, much later on down the road that leadership comes to play an important role.
That level of leadership comes from that one individual who has served their time out in the field, serving and protecting those they have sworn an oath to. That individual, the chief of police, oversees the duties of his men and the chain of command. If anything should take place that would cause the department to come under fire, the chief takes the weight and handles it all. They will go to bat for their men to ensure that all of the procedures and proper steps are taken to handle any and all questions, as well as all criticism that should be thrown their way because of that officer’s, or officers’, actions.
The Federal level of policing takes a step up on local policing, dealing with a much higher level of crime and doling out justice. In 2004 alone, the greatest amount Federal employees consisted of United States Customs, Border enforcement, the Federal prisons, and the F.B.I. These individuals alone amounted to well over ten thousand officers. Taking a deeper look at the level in which these individuals do their job, “the principle functions of prevention, detection, and investigation of crime and the apprehension of alleged offenders” (Federal Law Enforcement, 2015) . Federal agencies work hand...

...have more options for treatment depending on their personal allergies. It is clear from studies done by researchers that slowing down antibiotics and rotating them have reduced patient consumption.
In conclusion, life is constantly changing an evolving which means discoveries are made frequently. Research and technology are highly instrumental in determining the best approach and care for patients. With medicine the goal is to heal an individual and as long as that stays the primary purpose several other antibiotics or even cures could be developed.
References
Anitbiotic-resistant Definition available at http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2276. Accessed November 12, 2014.
Step 2: The Data: The Development of Antibiotics
Monnet, D. L. (2004). Antibiotic Development and the Changing Role of the Pharmaceutical Industry. The Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance: Exploring Roads Towards Concerted Action. Available at http://www.dhf.uu.se/antibiotics_participant/new_pdf/industry.pdf. Accessed December 10, 2004. Figure 1.
Step 3: The Data: Antibiotic Prescriptions
Seppala, H., et al. (1997). The Effect of Changes in the Consumption of Macrolide Antibiotics on Erythromycin Resistance in Group A Streptococci in Finland. New England Journal of Medicine 337:7, pp. 441–446. Figure 1.
Step 4: The Data: Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria
Whitney, C. G., et al. (2000). Increasing Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Streptococcus...

...
Environmental Scanning of Wal-Mart and Target
Lizette Morales
MGT/498
March 30, 2016
Week3
There are many successful corporations in the world because they are aware that change and trends can occur at anytime. It is essential for corporations to be susceptible to change as well as using tools to show the internal and external factors of their organization. Implementing measurement tools to will help determine the status of the organization.
Research show, to identify the need for change as opportune is an environmental analysis based on internal and external factors, to see the influence that they show so that the organization could achieve those reactive changes, which consist of adapting to the environment, or contrary to promote proactive changes that make the organization to influence the environment and not vice versa (Nadina R. 2011).
Wal-Mart and Target are two successful corporations, which compete against one another in providing quality products and services to people in their community. Wal-Mart and Target implement environmental scanning to help them rise above their competitors. Wal-Mart and Target identifies the need for change is the environmental scanning tool. Environmental scanning helps corporations determine the status of internal and external factors of the business.
Environmental scanning is the monitoring, evaluating, and disseminating of information from the external and...

...Step 1: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations” (p. 115). Here one makes a research hypothesis concerning a predicted relation among populations. The null and research hypothesizes are the opposite of each other. A correct research hypothesis means the null hypothesis cannot be correct, and a correct null hypothesis means the research hypothesis cannot be correct.
Step 2: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution” (p. 115). By reaching a true null hypothesis the population situation represents the comparison distribution, which is the distribution compared to the score and based on the results of the sample.
Step 3: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected” (p. 115). Here one rejects the null hypothesis if the point of the cutoff sample score reaches or exceeds the sample score. If the null hypothesis is true the Z score is set at a score, which would be unlikely.
Step 4: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “determine your sample’s score on the comparison distribution” (p. 115). Here one gathers the test’s sample results.
Step 5: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “decide whether to reject the null hypothesis” (p. 115). Here one either declares the test invalid or rejects the null hypothesis by comparing the cut off Z score to the sample’s...