Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder
Many people go through a normal day and have their emotions fluctuate due to some sort of stimuli. It is quite normal for people to feel emotions like depression or elation because of certain situations or circumstances. It is when moods like depression or mania that affect people for a longer than normal period of time or when they constantly fluctuate between depression and mania that one may suffer from something called a mood disorder. Depression is a state of overwhelming sadness and a person’s outlook on general life is dark and foreboding as if nothing is right or will ever be right. Normally people can suffer from just depression which is called unipolar depression. Other people, however, suffer from mania as well. One moment or day they feel the effects of depression the next they feel as if they have loads of energy and are in a constant state of energized motion or activity. People who suffer the effects of both depression and mania have something called bipolar disorder. Unipolar Depression Symptoms
The symptoms of unipolar depression span five different aspects of human functioning these are: emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physical. Emotional symptoms of depression leave people feeling overwhelmingly sad this may also be accompanied by thoughts of worthlessness, misery, and that they are empty or void of other emotions. People will often lose any pleasure gained from their normal activities and life and they may also lose their sense of humor. Depression can also sometimes be accompanied by anxiety, anger, and agitation (Comer, R. J. 2010). The fact that people with depression lose interest in their usual daily activities is one motivational symptom. Other motivational symptoms include a lack of drive and initiative (Comer, R. J. 2010). Many feel that they have to force themselves to do the things they do everyday like eat a meal or even talk to their friends and many others feel as if they just want to “lie in bed and not do anything at all”. Many people lose the very will to live and contemplate or even attempt suicide. An estimated 6 to 15 percent of people with severe depression commit suicide (Comer, R. J. 2010). Symptoms pointing to depression on a behavioral level include being less active and less productive (Comer, R. J. 2010). Many depression sufferers often sleep long hours and feel as if it is not worth getting out of bed. They may also speak and move more slowly than others do and more spend more time alone. Another sign of depression is the cognitive symptoms where people will often have very negative views about themselves, the world, and the people around them. This is called pessimism. On top of that they hold themselves in the lowest regard thinking that they can never get anywhere in life and that everything wrong that happens is always their fault even if it has nothing to do with them. People with depression will often expect the worst of any situation and are likely to procrastinate because they feel that it is not worth doing anything anyways. They may also have bouts of confusion, are unable to remember things, become easily distracted, and are unable to solve the simplest of problems (Comer, R. J. 2010).
Physical signs of depression have been marked as suffering from headaches, indigestion, constipation, dizzy spells, and general pain (Comer, R. J. 2010). Differences in appetite and sleep patterns are also common but sometimes encompass both sides of the spectrum from eating and sleeping less to eating and sleeping in an excessive fashion.
Unipolar Depression Causes
When diagnosing unipolar depression one must look at many factors as to what may have caused it and of what type a particular patient is suffering from. Some patients suffer from major depressive episodes (disorder) which are periods that last...