Protein and Skill

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Campbell's Biology, 9e (Reece et al.)
Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

In Chapter 5, the principles of chemistry covered in earlier chapters are applied to the understanding of biological polymers and lipid membranes. The emphasis is on properly linking monomers and their polymers, and on the structural and functional diversity of the different polymer types. Particular attention is given to protein structure, because this is central to understanding subsequent chapters on metabolism, molecular biology, and molecular medicine.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Humans and mice differ because
A) their cells have different small organic molecules.
B) their cells make different types of large biological molecules. C) their cells make different types of lipids.
D) their cells have some differences in the sequence of nucleotides in their nucleic acids. E) their cells make different types of proteins.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 5.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

2) Molecules with which functional groups may form polymers via dehydration reactions? A) hydroxyl groups
B) carbonyl groups
C) carboxyl groups
D) either carbonyl or carboxyl groups
E) either hydroxyl or carboxyl groups
Answer: E
Topic: Concepts 5.1, 4.3
Skill: Application/Analysis

3) Which of these molecules is not formed by dehydration reactions? A) fatty acids
B) disaccharides
C) DNA
D) protein
E) amylose
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 5.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

4) In animal metabolism, most of the monomers released by digestion of food macromolecules are metabolized to provide energy. Only a small portion of these monomers are used for synthesis of new macromolecules. The net result is that A) water is generated by animal metabolism.

B) water is consumed by animal metabolism.
C) the water consumed is exactly balanced by the water generated, to maintain homeostasis. D) water is consumed during homeostasis, but water is generated during periods of growth. E) water is generated during homeostasis, but water is consumed during periods of growth. Answer: B

Topic: Concept 5.1
Skill: Application/Analysis

5) Which of these classes of biological molecules consist of both small molecules and macromolecular polymers? A) lipids
B) carbohydrates
C) proteins
D) nucleic acids
E) lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids all consist of only macromolecular polymers Answer: B
Topic: Concept 5.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

6) Which of the following is not a polymer?
A) glucose
B) starch
C) cellulose
D) chitin
E) DNA
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 5.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

7) What is the chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers? A) phosphodiester linkages
B) hydrolysis
C) dehydration reactions
D) ionic bonding of monomers
E) the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 5.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

8) How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 11 monomers long? A) 12
B) 11
C) 10
D) 9
E) 8
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 5.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis? A) Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers. B) Dehydration reactions eliminate water from lipid membranes, and hydrolysis makes lipid membranes water permeable. C) Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.

D) Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers. E) Dehydration reactions ionize water molecules and add hydroxyl groups to polymers; hydrolysis reactions release hydroxyl groups from polymers. Answer: A

Topic: Concept 5.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

10) Which of the following polymers contain nitrogen?
A) starch
B) glycogen
C) cellulose
D) chitin
E) amylopectin
Answer: D...
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