6. The ph solutions that were used were 2,4,7,9 and 10. All of these solutions affected the beetroot, but the most acidic solutions were the ones that did the most damage to the membrane. This is because the ph affects the proteins within the phospho lipid bi-layer. The acidic ph breaks the hydrogen bonds therefore denaturing the proteins and allowing beetroot pigment to secrete form the cell.
7. The ethanol solutions that were used were 11%, 25% and 50% ethanol. The beetroot cell was almost immediately affected by the 50% alcohol but settled as time past. On the other hand the pigment intensity increased through time with the 25% alcohol solution. The ethanol affects the beetroot cell membrane because the ethanol is a very small molecule and rushes in through the phospho lipid bi-layer. By doing this, the structure between the phospho lipid by-layer is damaged not the phospho lipids themselves. This causes the cell to burst and bundles of cell are joined together forming micelles and therefore excreting the pigment of the beetroot into the solution. The higher the concentration, the quicker the cell bursts.
8. The detergent solutions that were used were 1% and 5% detergent. The household detergent is for breaking down grease and fats on surfaces. The detergent does the same for the phospho lipid bi-layer. The bi-layer is made from lipid tails therefore the detergent attacks the lipid and breaks the tails down. By the bi-layer breaking down, this lets the pigment leak into the solution increasing the intensity of the colour of the solution. The higher the concentration of the detergent the more the damage that is made to the phospho lipid bi -layer. This was not what happened in the results. The 1% detergent affected the bi-layer in the long run more than the 5% detergent. This is an unexplained error that occurred due to the accuracy of the experiment.
9. The solutions that affected the beetroot membrane immediately were the most acidic ph...