Organizational absenteeism is a phenomenon that exists in all organizations. Employees work in organizations designed to accomplish the goals for which the organization or business exist. McLean (2005) suggested that workplaces are established with a hierarchical structure, processes, and methods for accomplishing work effectively; and organizations are formed and staffed to achieve profitability, governance, or service goals, per the nature and purpose of the workplaces. Many authors indicated that employees who are dissatisfied are inclined to be absent from work more frequently although absenteeism is dependent on group level factors and organizational policies. In past literature related to employee absenteeism it is suggested how managers can improve their absenteeism rate and productivity (Buschak, Craven, & Ledman, 1999). Organizational culture, productivity, organizational commitment, job stress and job satisfaction seem to be some causes for organizational absenteeism.
Absenteeism has been described as a behavior that has serious consequences for the person, colleagues, and the organization (Porter & Steers, 1973). Employee absenteeism has been a concern of practitioners and the focus of much research by organizational theorist. There are many attributions that employees make for the factors that contribute to a decision to be absent from work (Dalton & Perry, 1981). Consequently, different organizational cultures and specific interpersonal subtleties may attribute to inexcusable absence to an excusable absence and vice versa may be one of the most significant reasons for increased employee absenteeism. Scanlan (2005) provided several suggestions that organizations should think about such as: (1) try to build a positive work environment so that its employees are happy and productive; (2) create good business intelligence and (3) produce a culture where individuals want to be and work because all of these things will benefit the organization financially. In a 2005, Commerce Clearing House (CCH) Unscheduled Absence Survey revealed that the average cost of absenteeism is $660 per person per year and it includes direct payroll cost for paid, unproductive time. The U.S. Department of Labor reported a number of professions with the highest absence rates which include sales and office occupations, education and health services, and public sector occupations (McLean, 2005). The first steps organizations need to do is develop an integrated management and prevention plans or policies for reducing absenteeism in an organizational environment and remember that there are programs offered that are geared to its environment and workforce, which are adaptable and sustainable.
The purpose of this study is to examine the influences of absenteeism and determining how its correlates organizational culture, job satisfaction, job stress, organizational commitment and productivity all affect the perceptions and behaviors of employees and managers in an organizational environment.
Conceptual Theoretical Framework
This study is guided by prior theory and empirical evidence, and will be somewhat exploratory in nature. The confirmatory part of this study links characteristics to absence attributions based on those perceptions believed to be theoretically relevant. A review of significant literature and a number of theoretical approaches will explain productivity, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and culture, absenteeism, and job stress presented below. The discrepancy theories according to Aamodt (2004), suggest that job satisfaction is determined by the discrepancy among what employees want, value and expect and what the business actually provides. Several theories that focus on employees’ needs and values include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, ERG theory, Two-factor theory and McClelland’s needs theory (Aamodt, 2004). Maslow’s (1954)...