In today’s society, man is faced with only one challenge, invention. We have traveled to a different world from what our ancestors faced; we form a world of people to a world of machines. The on going invention of machines is changing the life style of men rapidly. Since the industrial revolution in Europe machine has crossed a long way. Now, in every sector machine is necessary whether this is agriculture or industrial sector. This new world of computers and technology has become so routine and so normal that it is easy to forget just how far the industry has advanced, and just how much people now depend on it. Machines have enhanced human capacities to think and to do work. In past man had used domestic animals to do many of his work, and then he started to hire people to do the task that required human intelligence. Nowadays humans are being replaced by robots to do the same tasks. Whether we are a doctor using a computer to check blood type, a college professor doing research, or simply a homesick freshman writing home to mom, machines have become the basis for all types of business. Whether we are looking for our weekly horoscope, driving directions, researching a popular company, or placing a bid on a home stereo system (See appendix), the machines like the computer or internet offers both convenient and efficient methods of information. This dependency on machines has proved that machines are more effective and error free rather than manual process.
2. TYPES OF MACHINES:
Machine is a field of study that has many sub-fields. When discussing the ethics of machine one cannot look at the broad field of study to determine if one should develop machine. It is necessary to look at the specific sub-fields and their applications. In my research, I will focus on the following: ▪ Expert Systems
▪ Computer Vision
2.1 EXPERT SYSTEM
Expert system, a type of software program that makes decision or solve problems in a particular field, such as finance, medicine, etc. by using a stored knowledge and analytical rules defined by the consultants in that particular field. An expert system is made up of two essential components, a) The knowledge base, which provides a set of facts and rules about the subject. b) The inference engine, which provides the mechanism for selecting the relevant facts and for reasoning from them.
The system asks questions about the problem. The user provides information about the problem through the keyboard and the computer responds with an answer and explanations based on the facts in its knowledge base. 2.2 ROBOTICS
Robotics is the area of study dealing with the design, construction, and operation of robots. It is a combination of almost all other areas of artificial intelligence in some fashion. Robot is a computer-controlled machine that is programmed to manipulate objects and accomplish the work while interacting with its environment. James L. Noyes defines robot as: “A computer that is equipped with sensory devices and has the ability to communicate, move, and manipulate objects.”(Noyes, 375) According to the Robot Institute of America (1979) “A re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for a variety of tasks.”
2.3 COMPUTER VISION
It is the ability that allows the robot to see its surrounding with the help of digital cameras or microwave signals. The information received is then matched with the previously stored information in its computer for the purpose of identification and inspection. 3. ADVANTAGES OF WORKING WITH MACHINES INSTEAD OF HUMANS:
Artificial systems development offers more flexibility, ease of design, speed, scalability, and better financial return - ➢ Machine design offers a...