1. Introduction
A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response. The basis for analysis of a system is the foundation provided by linear system theory [1]. Many type of controllers are available in the industry, the main two types are: on/off and linear control system. Linear control systems use linear negative feedback to produce a control signal mathematically based on other variables, with a view to maintain the controlled process within an acceptable operating range. The output from a linear control system into the controlled process may be in the form of a directly variable signal [2]. The main devices which are used in linear control system are: proportional controller and proportional with (integral or derivative action) controller or a sum of integral and derivative controller (PID). 1.1 Proportional (P) control

A proportional control system is a type of linear feedback control system which is more complex than an on-off control system, but simpler than a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control system [3]. In the proportional control algorithm, the controller output is proportional to the error signal, which is the difference between the set point and the process variable. In other words, the output of a proportional controller is the multiplication product of the error signal and the proportional gain. [4] P controller can be mathematically expressed as:

(1)

Where
y: Output of the proportional controller
Kp: Proportional gain
e(t): Instantaneous process error at time (t).

And:
e(t)= SP-PV
Where: SP is set point and PV is process variable.
1.2 Proportional-Integral (PI) Control
PI controllers are often employed in practice where its combination of P and I controller and are connected in parallel. This type of controller is used to eliminate offset and it shows a maximum overshoot and settling time similar to the P controller but no steady-state...

...TITLE: MODELING AND SIMULATION PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL (PI) CONTROLLER FOR A DC MOTOR WITH IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE.
SUMMARY
This report is about a simulation study of modeling classical control technique of dc motor drive with improvement in proportional-integral (PI) control which is used closed-loop operation to control speed of motor. The speed regulator uses a PI controller in order to obtain the electromagnetic torque needed to reach the desired speed. Current controller controls the armature current by computing the appropriate thyristor firing angle or by using the firing gate angle. This generates the rectifier output voltage needed to obtain the desired armature current and thus the desired electromagnetic torque. This report also includes the work already completed and work planned for the next semester.
Figure1: ProportionalIntegral control (PI)
INTRODUCTION
Figure 2: main idea of PI controller
The control schematic of PI control dc motor converter-controlled separately-excited dc motor drive is shown above. The motor drive shown is a speed-controlled system. The thyristor bridge converter gets its ac supply through single-phase transformer thus the dc output is fed to the armature of the dc motor. The field is separately excited, and the field supply can be kept constant or regulated. The dc motor has a...

...
CONTENT
I. Introduction
1. The concept of derivatives market
2. The situation of the stock market and forex market in Vietnam
II. Influences of derivatives market as well as on Securities Market Forex market at Vietnam
1. Stock Market
a. Growth stock market
b. Debt leverage
2. Forex market
a. Increase the value of domestic currency
b. Exchange rate fluctuations
III. Conclusion.
I. Introduction
1.Derivative Market
The derivatives market is the financial market for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets. The market can be divided into two, that for exchange-traded derivatives and that for over-the-counter derivatives. The legal nature of these products is very different as well as the way they are traded, though many market participants are active in both.
2. The situation of the stock market and forex market in Vietnam
The money market in the first 9 months of 2013 have continued to improve positive liquidity of the banking system is strengthened and is abundant in comparison to the previous period due to increased deposit rate is always achieved high growth than the growth rate of the system thong12 credit , interest rates on inter-bank market , so despite some point surge but has generally maintained a stable interest rate is always low ( 3-4 % ) in...

...PID Controller Tuning: A Short Tutorial
Jinghua Zhong
Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University
Spring, 2006
Outline
This tutorial is in PDF format with navigational control. You
may press SPACE or →, or click the buttons in the lower right
corner to move to the next slide. Clicking on the outlined
items will take you directly to that section.
Goals and Objectives
What are we going to learn?
Introduction
What is a PID controller?
Why do we want to learn the PID Controller?
Tuning Rules
How does the PID parameters aﬀect system dynamics?
The Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule
What are we going to learn?
The goal of the tutorial is for you to learn about the PID
controller and a few basic tuning rules of it. After taking this
lesson, you will be able to
1. relate PID controller parameters to step response
characteristics of the controlled system, and
2. apply the famous Ziegler-Nichols tuning method to come
up with an initial set of working PID parameters for an
unknown system.
What is a PID controller?
A PID controller is a simple three-term controller. The letters
P, I and D stand for:
P - Proportional
I - Integral
D - Derivative
The transfer function of the most basic form of PID controller,
as we use in ME475, is
C (s) = KP +
KI
KD s 2 + KP s + KI
+ KD s =
s
s...

...Introduction
A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is one of the most common algorithms used for control systems. It is widely used because the algorithm does not involve higher order mathematics, but still contains many variables. The amount of variables that are used allows the user to easily adjust the system to the desired settings. The algorithm for the PID uses a feedback loop to correct the difference between some measured value and the setpoint. It does this by calculating and outputting some action that will correct this error in the system. A PID controller has a proportional, integral and a derivative control which handles the current, past and predicted future of the signal error. For more information about PID, please refer to PID Intro. The PID controller can operate systems that run in a linear or nonlinear fashion. Tuning processes are done to the controller to tackle the possible nonlinear system. Limitations arise within the system because tuning is limited to only three different parameters (proportional, integral, and derivative controls). Additional information on tuning of PID can be found at [1] or [2]. The most common limitations that occur within the PID control specifically involve the integral control. The following article addresses some...

...ASSIGNMENT ON DERIVATIVES
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Presentation on Derivatives
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DERIVATIVES
Definition: A derivative is a complicated financial contract that gets (derives) its value from an underlying asset. It is an agreement between a buyer and a seller that says how much the price of the asset will change over a specific period of time.
The underlying asset can be a commodity, such as oil, gasoline or gold. Many derivatives are based on stocks or bonds. Others use currencies, especially the U.S. dollar, as their underlying asset. Still others use interest rates, such as the yield on the 10-year Treasury note, as their base. These assets can be, but do not have to be, owned by either party to the agreement. This makes derivatives much easier to trade than the asset itself.
Derivatives Trading
It's estimated that derivatives trading is now worth $600 trillion -- ten times more than the total economic output of the entire world. In fact, 92% of the world's 500 largest companies use them to lower risk. For example, a futures contract can promise delivery of raw materials at an agreed-upon price. This way the company is protected if prices rise. They can also write contracts to protect...

...Design of fuzzy controller for two tank interacting system
Mohamed sabith KT
Second year M.tech Dept of Electrical Engineering NIT Calicut Calicut, India sabithkt@gmail.com Dr. Abraham T Mathew Professor, Dept of Electrical Engineering NIT Calicut Calicut, India atm@nitc.ac.in
Abstract—The control of liquid level in tanks and flow between tanks is a basic problem in the process Industries. Vital industries such as Petro-chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries have the coupled tanks processes. The level of fluid in the tanks and interaction between tanks must be controlled. The aim of the project is to model the the coupled two tank liquid level system and to design a fuzzy controller. For coupled tank systems with non linear and complex characteristics classical PID is difficult to achieve the desired response. Fuzzy logic control is a classic method by which dynamic performance and strong robustness is guaranteed. The project compares the performance of the two tank system with classical PID and fuzzy logic control. Index Terms—PID, fuzzy logic, steady state Introduction
through two separate pumps whose output is throttled using a control valve. Separate disturbance are made to both the tanks using hand valves. The two tanks are connected by means of hand valve, so the level of tank 1 will affect the tank 2 and vice versa. So this is a highly non linear system. Flow transmitters and pressure transmitters...

...CHAPTER 3 Hedging Strategies Using Futures
Tutorial 3 - Practice Questions
Problem 3.1.
Under what circumstances are (a) a short hedge and (b) a long hedge appropriate?
A short hedge is appropriate when a company owns an asset and expects to sell that asset in the future. It can also be used when the company does not currently own the asset but expects to do so at some time in the future. A long hedge is appropriate when a company knows it will have to purchase an asset in the future. It can also be used to offset the risk from an existing short position.
Problem 3.2.
Explain what is meant by basis risk when futures contracts are used for hedging.
Basis risk arises from the hedger’s uncertainty as to the difference between the spot price and futures price at the expiration of the hedge.
Problem 3.3.
Explain what is meant by a perfect hedge. Does a perfect hedge always lead to a better outcome than an imperfect hedge? Explain your answer.
A perfect hedge is one that completely eliminates the hedger’s risk. A perfect hedge does not always lead to a better outcome than an imperfect hedge. It just leads to a more certain outcome.
Consider a company that hedges its exposure to the price of an asset. Suppose the asset’s price movements prove to be favorable to the company. A perfect hedge totally neutralizes the company’s gain from these favorable price movements. An imperfect hedge, which only partially neutralizes the gains, might well give a better...

...Development of Financial Derivatives Market in India
This research study encompasses in its scope an analysis of historical roots of derivative trading, types of derivative products, regulation and policy developments, trend and growth, future prospects and challenges of derivative market in India. The study is organized into three sections. Section I deals with the concept, definition, features and types of financialderivatives. Section II has been devoted to a discussion of the growth of derivatives market, and regulation and policy development. The last section specifies summary and concluding remarks.
For Section I, the journal discussed about the concept of derivatives itself. The term of derivatives actually refers to a broad class of financial instruments which mainly include options and futures. These instruments derive their value from the price and other related variables of the underlying asset. They do not have worth of their own and derive their value from the claim they give to their owners to own some other financial assets or security. A simple example of derivative is butter, which is derivative of milk. The price of butter depends upon price of milk, which in turn depends upon the demand and supply of milk. The asset underlying a derivative may be commodity or a financial asset....