Objectives of Propaganda Movement
* Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law.
* Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain. * Restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes. * Filipinization of the parishes
* Granting of individual liberties to Filipinos such as:
* Freedom of Speech
* Freedom of the press
* Freedom of assembly
* Freedom to petition for grievances
THE PHILIPPINE BACKGROUND
a. Early History
Spanish sovereignty, first brought to the Philippines by Magellan in 1521, was firmly establish by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi when he founded the first permanent Spanish settlement on the island of Cebu, Legaspi successors quickly and, for the most part, peacefully brought the larger part of the island under Spanish control. Augistinian friars accompanied Legaspi, and were soon followed by another religious orders, so that by the end of a century, the larger part of the island was Christian. Priests diected the building of roads and bridges, founded and directed the schools, supervised local native officials, rsolved their problems, and defended them against the exactions of Spansih governors and encomenderos. In the unceasing raids carried on by the Muslim Moros form the southern island on Christian settlements, parish priests frequently had to organize the resistance and, more than once, put themselves art the head of the native militia to carry the war against the enemy. By the end of the eighteenth century, however, the stirrings of a new era were discernible. The introduction of the tobacco monopoly, the promotin of agriculture by enlighten governors-general like Jose Basco y Vargas an by the Royal Philippine Company, the relaxing of restriction against foreignes, the opening of the Philippines to world trade 1834 all helped to bring new life to the colony. Moreover, the growing economic prosperity gradually leaf too the rise of a well-to-do class of mestizos and natives.
b. Nineteenth Century Spain
By the late 18th century, political and economic changes in Europe were finally beginning to affect Spain and, thus, the Philippines. Important as a stimulus to trade was the gradual elimination of the monopoly enjoyed by the galleon to Acapulco. The last galleon arrived in Manila in 1815, and by the mid-1830s Manila was open to foreign merchants almost without restriction. The demand for Philippine sugar and abaca grew apace, and the volume of exports to Europe expanded even further after the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869. The Spanish government was incapable of adapting colonial policy to the new situation and of maintaining itself as the preferential market, preserving instead a stagnant administration opposed to autonomist reforms. Nevertheless, in contrast with the negative and unfair outlook that all colonial processes entail, the integration of the Philippines in the Spanish Empire brought about the social cohesion that favoured the construction of a national identity. In addition to the contribution of Catholicism—which exerted a great influence in Philippine society—and to the immersion of the islands in an international economy, the empire also promoted public works such as the building of lighthouses, the Manila Harbour Board and the Hydrographic Committee of the Pacific, and favoured incipient scientific development with the construction of the Manila Observatory.
c. The Filipino clergy and the Cavite Mutiny
The expulsion of the Jesuits in 17698 and the resounding failure of an ill-planned and imprtuous attempt to replace the religious parish priests with hastily ordained and largely unfit Filipino secular priests has made the four orders od=f friars the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Recoletos (Discalced Augustinians) more secure than ever ni their position as the mainstay of the church in the Philippines .
The 1872 Cavite Mutiny was precipitated by the...
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