Prompt: Describe the similarities and differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
All organisms are made of cells. The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can be alive. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of every organism. Cells fall into two distinct types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. While Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are similar in that both types of cells are bounded by a plasma membrane, all contain cytosol, and all have chromosomes and ribosomes; they differ in the location of their DNA, organelles in the cytoplasm, and their size.
All cells share certain basic features. They are bounded by a selective barrier known as the plasma membrane. All cells contain cytosol which is a semifluid, jelly-like substance. Also all cells have chromosomes and ribosomes. Chromosomes carry genes in the form of DNA. Ribosomes are tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes.
An important difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells is the location of their DNA. In a Eukaryotic cell, most of the DNA is found in the Nucleus. The Nucleus contains three distinct parts, the Nuclear envelope, the Nucleolus, and Chromatin. The Nuclear envelope is a double membrane. Also pore complexes connect the nucleus to the Endoplasmic Reticulum. The Nucleolus doesn’t have a membrane structure. It serves in the production of ribosomes. Lastly, Chromatin is material consisting of DNA and proteins. In a Prokaryotic cell, the DNA is concentrated in the Nucleoid. The Nucleoid is also not membrane-enclosed.
The interior of either type of cell is called the cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, a variety of organelles of specialized form and function are found. In a prokaryotic cell, however, these membrane-bounded structures are absent.
Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than Prokaryotic cells. They have internal membranes that compartmentalize their...