Topics: Crystal oscillator, Electronic oscillator, Quartz Pages: 14 (3549 words) Published: January 24, 2013
Global Institute of Technology
Session 2010-2011
This is to certify that Shobhit Bahri, Udita Shah, Tushar Jain and Vaibhav Agarwal students of B.Tech VIII Semester (Electronics & Communication Engineering ) have Design and developed a Major project on “TALKING VOLTMETER ” in the partial fulfillment of the award of Bachelor of Engineering Degree by University of Rajasthan.

Project Coordinator Guide
Mr.R.N.Vishnoi Mr. J.D.Jain
Place: G.I.T,Jaipur
We are very grateful to Mr. J.P.Aggarwal, HOD of Electronics & Communication department, for the help provided in completing the Major project assigned to us. We owe our thanks to Mr. J.D.Jain, to guide us and solve our problems during the project. We are also thankful to Mr.R.N.Vishnoi sir for his motivation to us to undergo this major project.

Last but not least, we pay our sincere thanks and gratitude to Mr. Babulal Sharma sir for making our project valuable and fruitful.
We are also thankful, to all our colleagues for their co-operation and support. Shobhit Bahri
Udita Shah
Tushar Jain
Vaibhav Agarwal
The purpose of the project is to make a tool which should be beneficial to any person who actively works in the lab. It is mainly used to measure voltage, the average of voltage and the value of minimum & maximum voltage. Frequency measurement is also done with great accuracy from about 10Hz to 100k Hz. All the readings are given out by the help of speakers; therefore, it is a very useful tool. It is even advantageous for some person to utilize this device instead of standard lab equipment.

The programming is done using microcontrollers and various IC’s have been used for various purposes which have been defined in the following pages.
We got this idea while surfing on net. Further this idea was encouraged by our project guide Mr.J.D.Jain sir. Also Mr.R.N.Vishnoi sir also helped us with the idea. We thought of the practical advantage of this project, analyzed its uses and came to a conclusion that this may be advantageous to everybody in labs. So this inspired us to work on this project and we tried to make something fruitful.

1. ATMEGA 32
The ATmega32 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega32 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designed to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.

The ATmega32 provides the following features: 32K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash Program memory with Read-While-Write capabilities, 1024 bytes EEPROM, 2K byte SRAM, 32 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, a JTAG interface for Boundary scan, On-chip Debugging support and programming, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, Internal and External Interrupts, a serial programmable USART, a byte oriented Two-wire Serial Interface, an 8-channel, 10-bit ADC with optional differential input stage with programmable gain (TQFP package only), a programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and six software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the USART, Two-wire interface, A/D Converter, SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the...
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