2.1 INTRODUCTION DAIRY INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Dairy enterprise is an important occupation of farmer. In India nearly 70% of the people depend on agriculture. It is the backbone of India. Dairy is linked with agriculture industry to a large extent. Animal husbandry in India is an essential part of agriculture. It is mainly a rural occupation closely associated with agriculture.
2.1.1 DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY INDUSTRY IN INDIA
During the Pre-independence year there was no serious stress given to dairy industry. In 1886 the Department of Defense of the British Government established the dairy farms for the supply of milk to the British troops in Allahabad. Later, in 1920 serious steps were taken by Mr. William Smith, an expert in dairy forming to improve the milk production There was discrimination done to the Indians hence this led to the rise of the first milk union in India. In Lucknow in 1937 called the Lucknow milk producer’s Co-operative union Ltd. In 1946 AMUL (Anand Milk Udyog Ltd) was started in Gujarat to bring up the economic stability of villagers. When the farmer Prime Minister Lal Bahaddur Shastri visited the functioning as it was rendering a social service to the society, which helped the villagers to come in the national economic stream. The dairy and Animal Husbandry received serious attention after the independence. There were lots many of progressive steps taken by the government through five year plans. This led to the formation of National Dairy Development Board in 1965 & thus in 1970 he decided to Bring a “ White Revolution” throughout the country, Initially 10 states were selected were for this purpose excluding Karnataka. In Karnataka in 1974 an integrated project was launched to restructure and reorganize the dairy industry on Co-operative principle of AMUL and to lay foundation for new direction in dairy industry. INDIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY PROFILE
India's high-value, high-volume market for traditional dairy products and delicacies is all set to boom further under the technology of mass production. This market is the largest in value after liquid milk and is estimated at US $3 billion in India.
More and more dairy plants in the public, cooperative and private sectors in India are going in for the manufacture of traditional milk products. This trend will undoubtedly give a further stimulus to the milk consumption in the country and ensure a better price to primary milk producers. Simultaneously, it will also help to productively utilize India's growing milk surplus.
Milk production in India increased from 17 million tons in 1950-51 to 89.6 million tons in 2007-08. India has rapidly positioned itself as the world's largest producer of milk. Producing milk in rural areas through smallholder producer cooperatives and moving industrially-processed milk from these smallholder sources to urban demand centers became the cornerstone of government dairy development policy. This policy initiative gave a boost to dairy development and initiated the process of establishing the much-needed linkages between rural producers and urban consumers. The performance of the Indian dairy sector during the past three decades has been truly impressive. Milk production grew at an average annual rate of 4.6 percent during the 1970s, 5.7 percent during the 1980s, and 4.2 percent during the 1990s.
Despite its being the largest milk producer in the world, India's per capita availability of milk is one of the lowest in the world, although it is high by developing country standards. The per capital availability of milk expanded substantially during the 1980s and 1990s and reached about 226 grams per day in 2003-04 the per capita consumption of milk and milk products in India is among the highest in Asia, but it is still growing. It is still below the world average of 285 grams per day, and also the minimum nutritional requirement of 280 grams per day as recommended by...