MEANING OF BANKING
Banking has come to occupy a pivotal position in a nation’s economy. According to the modern concept, banking is a business which not only deals with borrowings, lending and remittance of funds, but also an important instrument for fostering economic growth.
The Banking Regulation Act 1949, defines the term banking as “the accepting for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from the public or otherwise and withdraw able by cheque, draft, order or otherwise.” Thus, the essentials of banking are:
(1) There should be acceptance of deposited.
(2) Deposits should be from the public.
(3) Deposits should be repayable on demand or expiry of a term or after a specified periods.
(4) The purpose of deposits should be lending or investment.
“Bank” is an institution which deals in money and credit. It buys money from depositors and sell to the borrowers. It is body of persons whether incorporated or not who carry on the business of banking. A bank may defined as a corporation or person which collects deposits from the public, repayable on demand and which supplies and facilitates all kinds of exchanges.
Retail banking means mobilizing deposit form individuals and providing loan facilities to them in the form of home loans, auto loans, credit cards, etc, is becoming popular. This used to be considered by the banks as a tough proposition because of the volume of operations involved. But during the last couple of years or so, banks seem to have realized that the only sustainable way to increase deposits is to look at small and middle class consumer retail deposit and not the price sensitive corporate depositors. With financial sector reforms gathering momentum, the banking system is facing increasing companies from non-banks and the capital market. More and more companies are tapping the capital market directly for finance. This is one of the main reasons for the banks to focus vigourously on the much ignored retail deposits. Another reason is the current liquidity the margins are 1 to 2 percent above the prime rate; in retail market they are 3to4 percent.
It is reported that Indian retail market has the potential to be second only to the USA. National Readership Survey 5puts Indian households with monthly of over Rs. 5000 at 4.5 million. According to the survey, the category of households with annual income of Rs. 2 lakhs and above is growing at the rate of 30 per cent per annum. No winder, banks with vision and insight are trying to woo this market through a series of innovative additions to their products, services, technology and marketing methods. Fixed and unfixed Deposits, (cluster deposits which can be broken into smaller units to help meet depositors’ overdraft without breaking up entirely), centralised database for ‘any branch banking’ (whereby the customer can access his account in any of the branches irrespective of where the account is maintained), room services (whereby the customers are visited at their residences offices to enable them to open their accounts), automatic teller machines, tele banking network, extended banking time, courier pickup for cheques and documents, etc are some of the privileges extended to the customers by the banks in are eagerness to cultivate...