The recruitment and selection process is a matching activity between applicant and job and is fundamental to the functioning of an organisation. Inappropriate selection decisions reduce organizational effectiveness, invalidate reward and development strategies, are unfair on the individual recruit and are distressing for managers who have to deal with the personnel department’s mistakes.
Recruitment is the process which aims to attract suitably qualified candidates for a job from which it is possible to select a competent person Selection is the application of techniques with the aim of selecting and appointing a competent person.
Pre-recruitment activity: 3 elements:
1. Is there a prima facie case for recruitment?
• Is there actually a job to be done or can elements be distributed, eliminated or achieved through alternative means, e.g. contracting out? • Can the budget handle it?
• Do workload predictions justify recruitment?
• Does the hiring fit in with the business plan?
2. Job analysis
Once a prima facie case has been established, job analysis provides the opportunity for assessing whether the job has changed and for reviewing knowledge, skills etc. needed for the job. It is a process of collecting information about a job. Its outputs are job descriptions and person specifications.
3. Analysing the labour market
Definition: the identified pool of potential employees from which it is possible to attract candidates of required calibre for a specific job.
Internal Labour Market:existing staff can apply for vacancies Advantages:Motivation, continuity & retention, lower cost of recruitment Disadvantages:Restricting pool of available talent; difficult to implement change.
External Labour Market:e.g. local, regional, occupational Dynamic.
Employer aims to increase the supply of labour to the firm, so they can pay less for any given quality person. How? E.g. B &Q now take on older workers; schoolteachers from Australia and New Zealand now common in inner city areas; locate in areas of high unemployment (e.g. call centres in north east). In terms of the internal labour market, promotion criteria might be eased a little as the firm gets to know the worker and vice versa – increase match.
Of course, much of the discussion around recruitment is probably really about turnover, so an alternative approach is to hire people who will stay longer, perhaps older rather than younger workers in some industries. Also the use of Realistic Job Previews to give candidates a frank view of the job and organisation (including its negative aspects) so as to lower their expectations and increase commitment to the firm.
Use of recruitment methods
Too long and boring to rehearse here.
ACAS has code of practice, e.g. in advertising:
• Recruitment advertising should be genuine in that either a vacant job actually exists or recruiters seriously intend to consider applicants for employment • A person specification should be the basis for outlining the job requirements • The description of the organisation should be realistic, factual and clear • Job location, pay and allowances should normally be specified • Clear procedure instructions should be given
• Adverts should not discriminate on the basis of sex, race, disability and membership or not of a trade union (except statutory).
Clearly, as the applicant can exit at any point, it is in the firm’s interest to be professional in its methods.
A discrimination decision based on ability and suitability of the candidate. The discrimination should be based on criteria which are valid and job-related.
First stage – elimination and reduction. E.g. screening via application form, telephone; shortlisting
Second stage – selection. Two main concepts here are validity and reliability