1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Motivation has two meaning: expanding effort toward the accomplishment of an organizational goal, and the managerial process of getting workers to accomplice organizational goal. Motivation is one of the important contributor two performance and productivity.
The most basic way to employee is give them a chance to satisfy needs. People tend to strive for satisfaction of need at one level only after satisfaction has been achieved at the previous level.
The way a person behaves in a work situation is largely a function of motivation, that is, his desire to fulfill certain needs. Employee’s motivation is one of the most important factor for increasing performance and productivity. Performance result from interaction of physical, financial and human resources. The first two are inanimate; they are translated into “productivity” only when the human element is introduced. However the human element intersects a variable over which a Management has limited control. When dealing with the inanimate factors of Production, a management can accurately predict the input-output relationship and can even vary the factors it chooses in order to achieve a desired rate of Production. In dealing with employees, however, an intangible factor of activity. It attracts and initiates action and also serves as factor in the continuation of activity until objectives have been attained.
MEANING OF MOTIVATION
Scholars and lay people, in their own way have defined motivation. Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition “desires”, “wants”, “wishes”, ‘aim”, “goals”, “needs”, “drives”, “motives” and “incentives”. Technically the term motivation can be traced to th Latin word MOVER, which means “to move”. This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition. “A motive is an iner state that energizes, activates or moves and that directs or channels behavior towards goals”, stated by Bernard Berelsons and Gary A. Steiner. Filtmore H. Sanford and Lawrence S Wrightsman describe motive as follows; “ A motive is a restlessness, a lack, a yen, a force, once in the grip of a motive, the organism does something. It most generally does something to reduce the restlessness, to remedy the lack, to alleviate the yen, to mitigate the force”. The key to understanding motivation, it appears, lies in the meaning of , and relationship between need, drives and goals.
NEEDS--------------------------------( DRIVES-----------------------------( GOALS (Deprivation) (Deprivation with (ReductionDirection) or drives) Fig above depicts that motivation process. Needs setup drives to accomplish goals; this is what the basic process of motivation is all about. In a systems cense, motivation consists of three interacting and interdependent element; needs, drives and goals.
The best one word definition of a need is deficiency. In the homeostatic sense, needs are created whenever there is a physiological of psychological imbalance.For e.g. a need exists when a cell in the body is deprived of food and water or when the human personality is deprived of other persons, who serve as friends of companions.
With a few exceptions, drives of motives are setup to alleviate needs. A drive can be simply defined as deficiency with direction. Drives are action oriented and provide an energizing thrust towards goal accomplishment. They are at the very heart of motivational process. The example of the need for food and water translated into hunger and thirst drives and the need for friends become a drive for affiliation.
At the end of the motivational cycle is the goal. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything, which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. Thus attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological of psychological balance and will reduce of cut-off the will, volition...