Project Management Chapter 9

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Chapter 9

Foundations of
Group Behaviour

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, students should be able to:

1. Define group and differentiate between different types of groups. 2. Identify the five stages of group development.
3. Show how role requirements change in different situations. 4. Demonstrate how norms and status exert influence on an individual’s behaviour. 5. Show how group size affects group performance.

6. Contrast the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups. 7. Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making. 8. Compare the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, nominal, and electronic meeting groups. 9. Evaluate evidence for cultural differences in group status and social loafing, as well as the effects of diversity in groups.

Instructor Resources

Instructors may wish to use the following resources when presenting this chapter:

Text Exercises
• OB in Practice: The Power of Groups
• Myth or Science? “Are Two Heads Better Than One?” • Ethical Choice: How Groups Infect Your Deviant Behaviour–and How to Immunise Yourself • Point/CounterPoint: All Jobs Should Be Designed Around Groups • Questions For Review

• Experiential Exercise: Wilderness Survival

Text Cases
• Case Study 1 - Herd Behaviour and the Housing Bubble (and Collapse)]

Instructor’s Choice
This section presents an exercise that is NOT found in the student's textbook. Instructor's Choice reinforces the text's emphasis through various activities. Some Instructor's Choice activities are centred on debates, group exercises, Internet research, and student experiences. Some can be used in-class in their entirety, while others require some additional work on the student's part. The course instructor may choose to use these at anytime throughout the class—some may be more effective as icebreakers, while some may be used to pull together various concepts covered in the chapter.

|[pic] |WEB | | |EXERCISES | | |At the end of each chapter of this Instructor’s Manual, you will find suggested exercises and ideas for | | |researching the WWW on OB topics. The exercises “Exploring OB Topics on the Web” are set up so that you can | | |simply photocopy the pages, distribute them to your class, and make assignments accordingly. You may want to | | |assign the exercises as an out-of-class activity or as lab activities with your class. |

Summary and Implications For Managers

Performance Among the most prominent properties related to group performance are role perception, norms, status differences, size of the group, and cohesiveness.

Role perception and an employee’s performance evaluation are positively related. The degree of congruence between the employee’s and the boss’s perception of the employee’s job influences the degree to which the boss will judge that employee effective. An employee whose role perception fulfils the boss’s role expectations will receive a higher performance evaluation.

Norms control behaviour by establishing standards of right and wrong. The norms of a given group can help explain members’ behaviours for managers. When norms support high output, managers can expect markedly higher individual performance than when they aim to restrict output. Norms that support antisocial behaviour increase the likelihood that individuals will engage in deviant workplace activities.

Status inequities create frustration and can adversely influence productivity and willingness to remain with an organisation. Incongruence is likely to reduce...
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