Project constraints delay the start of project activities. Three project constraint need to be considered in scheduling. 1. Technological or Logical Constraints:
These constraints show the sequence in which project activities must occur. A project network framing a house might how three activities i-e (1) pour foundation, (2) build frame, (3) cover roof. All of thee three activities are in sequence because each activity depend on previous one. We can say that we cannot perform activity 2 until 1 I completed. 2. Physical Constraints:
Physical constraints are in rare situation that cause activities that would normally occur in parallel to be the constrained by environmental condition. For example, renovation of a hip compartment might allow only one person to perform an activity because of pace limitation, the procedures for handling physical constraints are similar to those used for resource constraints. 3. Resource Constraints:
A project network planner may assume adequate resources and show activities accruing in parallel because parallel activities hold potential for resource conflict. For example you are planning a wedding reception that includes four activities which are 1) Plan
2) Hire band
3) Decorate hall and
4) Purchase refreshments.
Each activity takes one day. Activity 2, 3 and 4 could be done parallel be different people. Thee activities are not technically dependent on each other. If one person performs all these activities, the resource constraint requires the activity to perform in sequence. So the consequence is delay and the very difficult set of network is shown. Resource dependency takes priority over technical dependency, but does not violate the technical dependency. That is hiring band, decoration and purchase of refreshments are in sequence rather then concurrently but they must be completed before arrival of the guests. Even in the small projects in interrelationship and interactions among time and resource constraints are complex. Before starting a project manager must do some efforts to examine these interactions which surprisingly uncover the problems. if a project manager do not consider a resource availability in moderate or complex project usually faces a big problem in the mid of the project and it is to late to take correct actions. The deficit of resource can significantly increase in project cost, completion date etc. The project manager must be careful about scheduling resources to ensure availability in the right quantities and at the right time. These are computer software programs that can identify resource problems during the early project planning phase when corrective actions can be considered. Thee programs require activity resource need and availability information to schedule resource.
Kinds of Resource Constraints:
Four kinds of resource constraints are discussed here which are; People, Materials, Equipment and Working Capital
People are the mot important resource of project. For doing any task people are the major resource which is required and is classified by the skills they have got. For example some have skills of programming which are called programmers. Similarly there are mechanical engineer, welders, inspector, marketing director etc. For successful completion of project different people are hired for different projects.
These are the materials which are required for project or which are to be used in a project. For example chemicals are the materials which are require for scientific project. When doing a road project, concrete are the required materials which are being used. Similarly survey date I needed for marketing project. Projects delay when there is shortage of materials. So for successful completion of project, material should be scheduled and to be included in the project plan.
These are resources which are represented by size; Quantity type etc....