Project Management

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Information Technology Project Management, Sixth Edition







Describe the systems view of project management and how it applies to information technology projects Understand organizations, including the four frames, organizational structures, and organizational culture Explain why stakeholder management and top management commitment are critical for a project’s success

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Understand the concept of a project phase and the project life cycle and distinguish between project development and product development Discuss the unique attributes and diverse nature of information technology projects Describe recent trends affecting IT project management, including globalization, outsourcing, and virtual teams

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Projects must operate in a broad organizational environment Project managers need to use systems thinking: ◦ Taking a holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization



Senior managers must make sure projects continue to support current business needs

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A systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a more analytical approach to management and problem solving Three parts include: ◦ Systems philosophy: an overall model for thinking about things as systems ◦ Systems analysis: problem-solving approach ◦ Systems management: address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems

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Information Technology Project Management, Sixth Edition

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Structural frame: Focuses on roles and responsibilities, coordination and control. Organization charts help define this frame. Political frame: Assumes organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues. Information Technology Project Management, Sixth Edition

Human resources frame: Focuses on providing harmony between needs of the organization and needs of people.

Symbolic frame: Focuses on symbols and meanings related to events. Culture is important.

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Many enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects fail due to organizational issues, not technical issues. For example, Sobey’s Canadian grocery store chain abandoned its two-year, $90 million ERP system due to organizational problems. As Dalhousie University Associate Professor Sunny Marche states, “The problem of building an integrated system that can accommodate different people is a very serious challenge. You can’t divorce technology from the sociocultural issues. They have an equal role.” Sobey’s ERP system shut down for five days, and employees were scrambling to stock potentially empty shelves in several stores for weeks. The system failure cost Sobey’s more than $90 million and caused shareholders to take an 82-cent aftertax hit per share.* *Hoare, Eva. “Software hardships,” The Herald, Halifax, Nova Scotia (2001). Information Technology Project Management, Sixth Edition

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3 basic organization structures ◦ Functional: functional managers report to the CEO ◦ Project: program managers report to the CEO ◦ Matrix: middle ground between functional and project structures; personnel often report to two or more bosses; structure can be weak, balanced, or strong matrix

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Information Technology Project Management, Sixth Edition

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Project Characteristics Functional

Organizational Structure Type Matrix Balanced Matrix Low to Moderate 15-60% Project Strong Matrix Moderate to high 50-95%

Weak Matrix Project manager’s authority Percent...
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