Progression of Homosexuality:
Evolution of a phenomenon over time
Some authors believe that homosexuality is not a kind of conduct, as commonly supposed, but a psychological condition (Woggon, 1981). Thus, it is important to understand that the genuine homosexual condition or inversion, as it is often termed. This condition is something for which the subject is in no way responsible. Some literature suggests that homosexuality in itself it is morally neutral. Like the condition of heterosexuality, however, it tends to find expression in specific sexual acts; and such acts are subject to moral judgment (McNeill, 1966). A major premise established in contemporary literature is the concept that sexual orientation ranges along a continuum, as opposed to simply being heterosexual or homosexual. It is possible that this is mainly because increased attention has been paid to the attraction and not merely the action. Braverman (1973) has examined a scale developed by Kinsey, who thought that homosexuality is a normal manifestation of human sexuality. This scale operationalizes the continuum. People are rated on a scale of zero to six. Zero representing exclusive heterosexual inclinations and six exclusive homosexual inclinations. Those who don’t fall into either extreme feel a mixture of both to varying degrees. This middle group is theoretically bisexual. However, people who are close to either extreme tend to be absorbed into that respective category. This absorption leaves only those closer to the centre in the bisexual group. Most research conducted has grouped people into these three categories. The Causes of Homosexuality
Fathers, on the other hand, were thought to prefer the other children. In doing so, fathers failed to protect the child from the destructive influence of the mother. The researchers espousing biological and genetic causes of homosexuality were considered to be fringe in those times. Even so, there were studies corroborating such causes. Kallman (1952) conducted a study in which male homosexual monozygotic twins were found to be significantly more similar (in terms of homosexual tendencies) than dizygotic twins. These results were not taken to mean that genetic composition was a necessary condition for the development of homosexuality. Rather, it was generally thought by proponents, that a hereditary physical trait played a role in the cultural shaping of a homosexual. In other words, if a young male or female exhibited physical characteristics associated with the opposite gender that individual would have been treated as if they were homosexual. This would in turn influence their development (a self-fulfilling prophecy). Silberner (1984) referred to a study conducted by the State University of New York, in which researchers found a physical correlate to homosexual behavior. They went further to conclude that biological markers for sexual orientation may exist. Even so, researchers made it clear that findings did not focus on definite causes of homosexuality. However, it was admitted that there was a real possibility that there is a biological element of the phenomenon. Even into the 1990’s this vein of research has continued. For example, Bower (1993) identified that significant progress had been made in the pursuit of identifying a gene that may influence some instances of male homosexuality. It was suggested that a gene within a small segment of the X chromosome (passed from mother to son), contributes to the sexual orientation of a subset of homosexual men. Interestingly, a tendency to focus on male homosexuals in scientific research can be seen at this stage. Although an exhaustive list of studies on homosexuality cannot be provided in this forum (nor would it be practical), from a review of the available literature, this is confirmed. The APA removed homosexuality from its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychological Disorders in 1973. In 1975 it then released a...