J Soc Sci, 18(1): 13-19 (2009)
Progress of Human Development in India
T. Koti Reddy Faculty in Economics, ICFAI Business School,Dontanapalli Village, Shankerpalli Mandal, Rangareddy District 501 504, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Telephone: 9440652559, 9866605139 (R), 9247021015 (O) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org KEYWORDS Human Development Index. Human Poverty Index. Gender Development Index. Education. Health ABSTRACT Many economists in recent decades have pointed out that the third world countries have remained underdeveloped on account of underdevelopment of human resources. Human development is the end while economic growth is only a means to this end. The ultimate purpose of the entire exercise of development is to treat men, women and children – present and future generations–as ends, to improve the human condition, to enlarge people’s choices. In terms of human development, India with a Human development index value of 0.611 stands 126th Place out of the 177 countries for which Human development report 2006 calculated the index. The reform process will not be able to achieve the objective of human development, because the private sector is merely concerned with profit motive. Therefore, large –scale investments in human resources are needed under public sector if physical capital available is to be exploited in a more efficient way. Human development index of India has improved from 0.515 in 1990 to 0.611 in 2004, but India still has miles to go before she can enter the group of high human development countries. The process of development has to accelerate the pace of human development. In this paper an attempt is made to highlight some of the factors which promotes human development.
1. INTRODUCTION Human development report 1990, has defined human development ‘as the process of enlarging people’s choices’. The most critical ones are to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated and to enjoy a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, other guaranteed human rights and various ingredients of self respect. Human development is thus a process of widening people’s choices as well as raising the level of well-being achieved (UNDP 1997). The concept of human development puts people back at center stage, after decades in which a maze of technical concepts had obscured this fundamental vision (Paul Streeten 1996). “Income clearly is only one option that people would like to have, though an important one. But it is not the sum total of their lives. Income is also a means, with human development the end (UNDP 1997). Economic growth contributes most to poverty reduction when it expands the employment, productivity and wages of poor people and when public resources are channeled to promoting human development. A virtuous cycle of economic growth and human development arises when growth is labour using and employment generating and when human skills and health improve rapidly. The defining difference between the economic growth and the human develop-
ment schools is that the first focuses exclusively on the expansion of only one choice – income – while the second embraces the enlargement of all human choices- whether economic, social, cultural or political (Mahbub-ul-Haq 1996). “ Haq rightly warns” unless societies recognize that their real wealth is their people, an excessive obsession with creating material wealth can obscure the goal of enriching human life.” The world Bank (IBRD 2006) is used GNI per capita to classify the economies by income per capita and by region: Low- income $ 825 or less in 2004: middle income, $ 826 to $ 10, 665; and high income, $ 10, 066 and above. A further division at GNI per capita $ 3, 255 is made between lowerTable 1: GNP per capita and PPP estimates of GNP per capita in U.S dollars (2004) (in U.S $) Country Norway Switzerland United states United kingdom Australia China Srilanka India Bangladesh Kenya Niger GNP per capita...