Program Evaluation and Review Technique (Pert) and Critical Path Analysis (Cpa)

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INTRODUCTION;

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Analysis (CPA) are tools that are used to schedule and manage large complex projects. These tools help to simplify the planning and scheduling of projects to plan most importantly during the management of a project, they enable companies to monitor achievement of project goals and assist to identify where remedial action needs to be taken to ensure project is completed within the time frame.

PERT is used to estimate the time each activity will take. PERT is intended for very large-scale, one-time, complex, non-routine projects. . It is more of an event-oriented technique rather than start- and completion-oriented, and is used more in R&D-type projects where time, rather than cost, is the major factor. A PERT diagram shows the relationship between simultaneous steps in a project, after critical path analysis PERT diagram can also be used to show the critical path.

CPA formally identifies tasks which must be completed on time for a project to be completed on time, which tasks have the option of been delayed and the minimum length of time needed to complete a project. If a company would require to accelerate a project, CPA analysis will help you to identify which project steps you should accelerate to complete the project within the available time. This helps you to minimize cost while still achieving your objective.

STEPS TAKEN TO CREATE A PERT DIAGRAM;

1.List the steps required in a project and the time required to complete each event The formula below to calculate the estimated time for each project stage:

a + 4m + b
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6

(a- Optimistic time, m- Normal time, b- Pessimistic time).

2. Draw a network of lines and circles showing the relationships between events.

3. Each circle should be labeled with the number of its step.

4. A line represents the time that each event takes. Each line should begin and end above the point on the time line that shows when the event that it leads to should begin and end.

5. Each line should lead to a step that’s dependent on the completion of the event that the line comes from. Thus, several lines may originate from one step or converge on one step.

STEPS TAKEN TO CONDUCT A CPA ANALYSIS;

1.Determine the tasks that the project requires and the order in which they must be completed.

2.Calculated the estimated time for each task.
3.Draw a Gantt chart or a network diagram.
4.Diagram should show the following detail of a task
The activity name
The normal duration time
The early start time (ES)
The early finish time (EF)
The late start time (LS)
The late finish time (LF)
The slack

5.Identify the critical activities

DEPICTING THE USE OF PERT AND CPA;

Scenario: Building a house

Step 1: Determining the tasks required to complete the project and the sequence of the tasks.

Given below is the list of tasks involved in building a house

TASKPRE-REQUISITE TASKS

DESIGN & PLANNING
ALocate Plot-
BExcavate landA
CSurvey and Initial design from architectA
DGet city council approvalC
EFinalize designD
FDecide on contractorE

CONSTRUCTION
GLaying foundationB,F
HRaising columnsG
ILaying slabs and beamsH
JRoofingI
KBuilding support wallsJ
LWiringJ
MPlumbingJ

FINISHING
NFixing doors and windowsJ
OPlasteringK,L,M,N
PFloor finishesO
QLandscapingO
RPaintingP
SFinishes on doors and windowsR
TLight fittingS
UFurniture arrangement ( Custom fittings)R
VClean upT,U,Q

Step 2: Determine estimated time for each task.

Estimated Time = a + 4m + b
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6

TASKMost Probable Time (m)Optimistic Time (a)Pessimistic Time (b)Estimated Time (days)
DESIGN & PLANNING
ALocate Plot72107
BExcavate land14121614
CSurvey and Initial...
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