Dr. Kathleen Chara
March 9, 2012
Professional School Counseling
A school counselor assists students in developing strategies to surmount society before society surmounts them. By teaching children social skills, and also a way of coping, a school counselor serves as a role model among the youth. Their primary purpose is assisting children with educational, emotional, and social development skills that will guide them in the direction of a healthier future.
In most schools there is at least one counselor. Most School Counselors work in secondary schools (Grubb). Most opportunities will occur to meet replacement needs. Outlook is dependent on pupil population so job opportunities are best in growing areas. Those in the area of specialty who are bilingual and bicultural may have better chances for employment. Beginners may have to work at lower paying or part-time jobs in order to gain experience in the field. Jesse B. Davis was the founder of school counseling. Jesse B. Davis was the first individual that becomes known for introducing “vocational and moral guidance” into the school system. “This was the first systematic guidance program in public schools” (A Brief History of School Counseling, 2011). Jesse B. Davis was a school administrator in Michigan who seen how the new classes in the school systems were challenging to the students so he created a guidance curriculum. Davis introduced his guidance curriculum at the Grand Rapids, Michigan School that he was a principal at. This program was introduced to 11th grade boys and girls during 1898 to 1907. He introduced this curriculum into an English class once a week. During this class that teachers would teach the lessons that were suggested by Davis. Frank Parsons was influenced by the work of Jane Adams. He was a social worker in Boston Massachusetts. Parsons began a house for people that were unemployed. He thought that vocational education should be introduced into the public school systems. Parsons introduced the Vocation Bureau in Civic Service House in Boston in 1908. This established the first vocational institute in the United States. He also wrote a book called “Choosing a Vocation” right before he died in 1909. The American Counseling Association started out being known as the National Vocational Guidance Association, which was founded in Grand Rapids Michigan.
This form of vocation guidance that the above people developed began to spread throughout many of the larger cities. This spread also involved Eli Weaver. Eli Weaver wrote a book called “Choosing a Career”. He began to introduce vocational guidance in New York City Schools as early as 1906. Vocational guidance began to spread fast. By 1909, it was I introduced into Boston schools, then in 1911 into Cincinnati schools. Vocational guidance mainly was developed because of a fear of unemployment. This in return created a strong social reform and progressive education movement. By 1924 guidance counselors (School Counselors) began to get certified.
Vocational guidance and school counseling began to grow between the 1920’s and 1930’s. This growth happened due to the progressive education in the schools. The progressive movement placed emphasis on personal, social, and moral development. Many schools refused this education, saying that it was an anti-educational movement and that they should only be teaching the fundamentals of education. All this added with the Great Depression cause a decline in the school counseling and guidance profession. “In the 1940’s the United States were using psychologists and counselors mainly to select, recruit, and train military personnel” (A Brief History of School Counseling, 2011). This usage of counselor in the military caused the 1950’s “the Guidance and Personnel Services Section in the Division of State and Local School Systems. In 1957 the National Defense Education Act was...