Professional School Counseling

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Abstract
Over the years experts have studied the history and developmental aspects of the professional school counseling field. This paper will give an introduction to professional school counseling and the importance of the field as it relate to counseling. Major themes that are attached to the field of professional school counseling are relevant in their duties and a few are listed with their meaning, important identified clients, what counselors do to help in the situation, and the outcome for client intervention. The 5 themes are character education, bullying, social-conflict, academics, and mental illness. Additionally, this paper will include important elements of school counselor identity, function and ethics. A section of the paper will give biblical values and insights related to the subject of professional school counseling. The experience of research has provided the reader with the personal reflections concerning school counseling and a discussion of the commitment to provide biblically grounded, ethical and empirically based services from the point of view of the writer.

Introduction
Children are in a society where the world is rapidly changing. Due to influx of social and economic changes and problems that are brewing within the homes of our students: these problems tend to spill over into the schools. The problems that are presented in the schools are escalating, when you think that things are improving. The purpose of this paper is to give some insight on the problems that professional school counselors faced in our schools. Every problematic area is not covered in this paper because it is so much research on many degrees of issues that professional counselors face. We propose that with the proper training, programs and support of the schools, counselors will be able to see a positive change.

History and Development
The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. Formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century. In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. This was instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages. NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers (Guidance and School Counseling, n.d.). After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor (Sandhu, 2000). After passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990 Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers (Sandhu, 2000). One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau (Sandhu, 2000). Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school...
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