Prof. Labitag

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University of the Philippines
College of Law

OUTLINE IN OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
Title I. Obligations
Chapter I General Provisions
I.

Concept
A. Definition- Art. 1156
- criticism of definition
B. Elements
1.
2.
3.
4.

Active Subject
Passive Subject
Prestation or Object
Efficient cause or juridical tie or vinculum juris

C. Distinction Between Natural and Civil Obligations
1. As to enforceability
2. As to basis
II. Sources of Obligations- Art. 1157
A. Law- Art. 1158
B. Contracts- Art. 1159, 1305
C. Quasi-Contracts- Art.1160, 2142
1. Kinds
a. Negotiorum gestio- Art.2144
b. Solutio indebiti- Art. 2154
c. Other quasi-contracts- Arts. 2164 to 2175
D. Acts or omissions punished by law- Art. 1161
E. Quasi-Delicts- Art.1162, 2176

1. Distinction between quasi-delicts and crimes
2. Liability for fault of others- Art. 2180; Art. 218, 219 of FC 3. Civil liability arising from crime- Art. 1161; Rules on Criminal Procedure (2000), Rule 111
Cases
Barredo v. Garcia, 73 Phil. 607 (1942)
Mendoza v. Arrieta, 91 SCRA 113 (1975)
PSBA v. CA, 205 SCRA 729 (1992)
Amadora v. CA 160 SCRA 315 (1988)
Air France vs. Carrascoso 18 SCRA 155 (1966)
III. Classification of Obligations
A. Primary Classification Under the Civil Code
1. Pure and Conditional (Arts. 1179-1192)
2. With a period or term (Arts. 1193-1198)
3. Alternative and Facultative (Arts. 1199-1206)
4. Joint and Solidary (Arts. 1207-1222)
5. Divisible and Indivisible (Arts. 1223-1225)
6. With a penal clause (Arts. 1226-1230)
B. Secondary Classification
1. Legal (Art. 1158); Conventional (Art. 1159); Penal (Art. 1161) 2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Real (to give) and Personal (to do or not to do)
Determinate and Generic (as to subject matter of obligation) Positive (to give, to do) and Negative (not to give, not to do) Unilateral and Bilateral
Individual and Collective
Accessory and Principal
As to object or prestation:
Simple
Multiple
Conjunctive
Distributive
Alternative
Facultative
9. Possible and Impossible

2

Chapter 2. Nature and Effects of Obligations
I. Kinds of Prestation
A. Obligation to give
1. a specific thing
a. Duties of the obligor
i. To deliver thing itself- Art. 1244
ii. To preserve thing- Art. 1163
iii. To deliver the accessions and accessories- Art. 1166
- distinction between accession and accessory
iv.
To deliver the fruits- Art.1164 par. 1
2. a generic thing- Art. 1246
B. Obligation to do- Art.1244
C. Obligation not to do- Art. 1244
II. Breach of Obligation
A. Concept
1. Distinction between substantial and casual/slight breach
Cases:
Song Fo v. Hawaiian Phils. 47 Phil 821 (1928)
Velarde, et al v. CA 361 SCRA 56 (2001)
Angeles, et al. vs. Ursula Calasanz, et al., G.R. No. L42283, March 18, 1985 Delta Motor Corp. vs. Genuino & CA, G.R. No. 55665,
February 8, 1989
Vermen Realty vs. CA, GR 101762, July 6, 1993, 224
SCRA
B. Modes of Breach- Art.1170
1. Fraud (dolo)
a. Concept
i. dolo (1171) vs. dolo incidente
ii. dolo (1171) vs. dolo causante
Case

3

Woodhouse v. Halili, 93 Phil. 526 (1953)
Lydia L. Geraldez, vs. CA & Kenstar
Travel Corporation, G.R. No. 108253,
February 23, 1994.
b. Nonwaiver- Art. 1171
c. Effects
2. Negligence- Art. 1172
a. Concept- Art. 1173
i. culpa v. dolo
ii. culpa aquiliana v. culpa contractual
Cases
Gutierrez v. Gutierrez, 56 Phil. 177 (1932)
Vasquez v. Borja, 74 Phil. 560 (1944)
b. Standard of care required- Art. 1173 par. 2
Cases
De Guia v. Manila Electric Co., 40 Phil. 706 (1920)
US v. Barias, 23 Phil. 434 (1912)
Sarmiento v. Sps. Cabrido, 401 SCRA 122 (2003)
Crisostomo v. CA, 409 SCRA 528 (2003)
c. Effects
3. Delay (Mora)- Art. 1169
a. Concept
b. Kinds
i. mora solvendi
- requisites
- General Rule: Creditor should make demand
before debtor incurs delay- Art. 1169
Case
Cetus Development Corp. v. CA ,
SCRA 72 (1989)
Aerospace Chemical Industries vs. CA,
GR No. 108129, September 23,1999, 315...
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