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INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS BLOOD TRANSFUSION?
Is the transfer of blood or blood components into a person’s bloodstream, or a safe common procedure in which you receive blood through an intravenous (IV) line into one of your blood vessels. HOW BLOOD TRANSFUSION OCCUR?

During a blood transfusion a small needle is used to insert an (IV) line into one of your blood vessels through this line, you receive healthy blood. The procedure usually takes one to four hours depending on how much blood you need. WHAT HAPPENS BEFORE BLOOD TRANSFUSION?

Before a blood transfusion a technician test your blood to find out your blood type (A,B,AB OR O) and whether you are Rh-positive or Rh-negative he or she pricks your finger with a needle to get a few of blood or draws blood from one of your veins the blood type used for your transfusion must work with your blood type, if it does not antibodies(PROTEIN) in your blood attack the new blood and make you sick. Some people have allergic reactions even when the donated blood does work with their own blood type, to prevent this; your doctor may prescribe a medicine to stop allergic reaction THREE IMPORTANT TYPE OF TRANSFUSION ARE:

i.Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion
ii.Platelet transfusion
iii.Clotting factor transfusion
·Red blood cell (RBC) is the most common type of transfusion, it helps people who lose large amount of blood in accidents or surgery, before an RBC transfusion samples of the patients and donor's blood are mixed to check for a harmful reaction this test is called Cross-match HOW BLOOD IS COLLECTED

Donors must meet strict health requirements before giving blood. Blood banks test donors for normal blood pressure, body temperature, and pulse. Blood banks also ask donors about illness, foreign travel ‘or other factors that might indicate unsafe blood. Donors must be at least 17 YEAS OLD and weigh 110 pounds (50 KILOGRAMS).A person can usually donate a unit of blood every two months. During collection, a health-care worker takes blood from a vein in the donor's arm. Some blood samples are sent to a laboratory for test. The remaining blood is transferred to a bag that contains a preserving solution of citrate and nutrient (sugar). A machine called a blood cell separator breaks up the blood into its parts. Laboratory technicians classify the blood samples into one of four ABO types and as RH- positive or Rh negative [blood groups].They then carefully label all parts of the same unit of blood. Technicians also test the blood samples for certain infections, including the AIDS virus and liver infection called hepatitis B. If the samples carry such infections, all blood collected from the donor is discarded. Large numbers of platelets can be obtained from a single donor by a technique called plateletpheresis (pronounced PLAYT light fish REE sighs). In plateletpharesis, health-care worker places a needle in each arm of the donor. Blood from one needle flows to a blood cell separator, which removes the plateles.

RISKS OF TRANSFUSION
There is little health risk involved in donating blood however, possible complications for the recipient of a transfusion range from mild to serious. Mild complications might include:
Øfever
Øallergic
ALLERGIC REACTION
Some people have allergic reactions to the blood given during transfusion. This can happen even when the donated blood is the correct blood type. ØAllergic reactions can be mild or severe, symptoms may include: ØChest or back pain

ØTrouble breathing
ØFever, chills, and clammy skin
ØA quick pulse or low blood pressure
ØNausea(feeling sick to your stomach)
Serious complications might include dangerous illness or death for example an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction my occur if a patient mistakenly receives red blood cells of the wrong type. Some infections agents, such as HIV can survive in blood and infect the person receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe blood...
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