Production of Soap

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PRODUCTION OF SOAP,
CHEMICALS USED
Oil: This is the major composition of soap as it contains fatty acid which must be hydrolysed by caustic soda to form soap. Caustic soda:This is generally known as sodium hydroxide. It is a white crystalline solid. It dissolves readily in water to give aqueous solution and liberates substantial amount of heat in the process of dissolution. It plays a major role in soap formation by hydrolyzing free fatty acid components of the oil to yield soap and glycerol. Sodium carbonate: It is a strong soluble solid compound hydrated into washing soda. It helps to increase the quality and quantity of the product. It can be found in two forms, light and dense. Silicates: This is a salt gotten from salic acid and exists in liquid form. It is a shining and binding agent and must not be exposed to air so as to prevent its congealing. If added in excess leads to soap dissolving and finishing in time, but if it is insufficient, the outlook of the soap will look very dull. Sodium tri-poly phosphate:Often called S.T.P.P., it is a building agent and its major role is to prevent the detergent from deteriorating in quality, it forms the main powder structure. Sulphonic acid: It is a black viscous liquid which plays a prominent role in the detergent. It is the foaming agent and it reacts with caustic soda in the process known as saponification in the formation of the product. Carboxy methyl cellulose: It is a white crystalline solid, hydrated into a strong viscous liquid. It serves as a building agent and also helps in keeping dirts in suspension

PRODUCTION OF SOAP
A portion (150g) of palm kernel oil was measured into a mixing vessel and melted at 60oC for 3 minutes. A 24.8g of caustic soda (NaOH) was weighed and dissolved in 74mL of water, the solution was stirred properly using a glass rod until it blends and it was allowed to cool overnight. The caustic soda solution was gradually poured into the melted palm kernel oil and the solution was stirred in one direction to enhance thorough mixing of the solution, with the plastic container (mixing container) insulated with pieces of cloth to prevent hardening of the oil before the soap mixes properly. A portion (12.4g) each of soda ash and sodium sulphate solutions were added to the soap mixture and stirred properly and 30mL of sodium silicates was also added. The solution was stirred properly until it blends and perfume was added lastly in order to prevent the lye from eating the perfume. The soap mixture was poured into the mould and allowed to fully saponify and harden up.

PRODUCTION OF DETERGENT
A portion (750g) of palm kernel oil was measured into a mixing vessel and melted on a water bath at 60oC for 3minutes. A 116.25g of caustic soda was dissolved in 350mL of water; the solution was stirred properly and was allowed to cool overnight. The caustic soda solution was poured gradually into the melted palm kernel oil and stirred in one direction to enhance proper mixing of the solution and 230.5g of sulphonic acid was added and stirred. A portion (38.74g) of sodium tri-poly phosphate were added and stirred properly to enhance proper mixing and 19.38g of carboxy methyl cellulose solution was added and stirred properly. A 38.74g of soda ash was added gradually and stirred and hydrogen peroxide added and stirred and the solution was poured onto a well spread sack to support proper aeration and allow the water drain off and dry properly.

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF SOAP AND DETERGENT
Moisture content
A portion (1g) of the sample was weighed into a preweighed porcelain boat and placed into an oven at 100oC for 2hours. The porcelain boat was removed and allowed to cool in a dessicator. Moisture content (%) = weight of sample taken – weight of residue after drying x 100

Weight of sample after drying

pH 10% SOLUTION
The soap was grated into fine particles with knife to give fine flakes. A portion (10g) of the sample was measured into a...
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