Production and Operations Management

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Q1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Production and Operations Management ("POM") is the transformation of production and operational inputs into "outputs" that, when distributed, meet the needs of customers. The History of Production and Operations Management began during the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution began in the 1770s in England and spread to the rest of Europe and the United States during the 19th Century. During this time, goods were produced in small shops by craftsmen. Under this system, one man could be responsible for making one product from start to finish. Only simple tools were used since no machines had been invented then. In the 18th century, there were innovations which changed the face of production by substituting machine power for human power. The most significant of the innovations was the steam engine which provided a source of power to operate machines in factories. The supply of coal and iron ore provided materials for generating power and making machinery. In the earliest days of manufacturing, goods were produced using graft production: this is where skilled workers used simple, flexible tools to produce goods according to customer needs. This system was disadvantageous in that to craftsmen, it was slow and costly. Industrial revolution was boosted by the standard gauging systems which reduced the need for customer-made goods and resulted in to rapid growth of factories which provided jobs for to people from rural areas. The historical development of production and operations management started during the industrial revolution. This was progressing through different stages i.e. Manufacturing management, production management and operations management. The view of manufacturing management started in the 18th Century. This is the time when Adam Smith recognized the economic benefits of specialization of labor. He recommended breaking jobs in to subtasks and assigning workers to...
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