LEGAL REQUIREMENT AND LEGAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PRODUCT TANKER
Maritime sector is become a key contributor to the economy for some of the country. It can be seen through the emergence of the designing and construction of the ship. The main cause maritime sector developing is because the demand and supply of the cargoes increasing throughout the years. There are many types of merchant ship involve in the trading activities such as product tanker, chemical carrier, oil tanker and etc. This paper will discuss about the legal requirement as well as the legal constraints in the design and construction of the product tanker. This paper will highlight on some important aspect in the design and construction of product tanker according to the SOLAS and MARPOL.
The safety of the ship and the seaworthiness of the ship as well as the green environment which contribute to marine resources and human health become the main concern in the design and construction of the ship on this day. Over the past few decades, there are many cases regarding the collision and sinking of the merchant ship that cause by the weakness in the design and construction of the ship. This incidents cause the pollution which be harmful to the marine resources and human health and also sacrifice the life of the crews.
In this case, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978, which was convened by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) come out to force on this issue. This convention outlined the legal requirement and legal constraints in the design and construction of the ship. Classification society that involve to certifying the safety of the ship will comply with the IMO requirement.
One of the merchant ships that involve in the trading activities is product tanker. It is a type of tanker designed to carry refined oil products such as gasoline for motorcars, gas oil or diesel oil for industry, naphtha for petrochemical industry, aviation fuel, kerosene, etc. This kind of tanker usually has large number of cargo tanks capable of handling several different grades of oil at the same time, also known as product carrier. The size of the product tanker in the deadweight (DWT) usually ranging from 10,000 DWT to 60,000 DWT.
The purposes of this report are to highlight on some of the important legal requirement and legal constraints in the design and construction of the product tanker which is comply with the SOLAS and MARPOL. A study and research about all legal requirement and legal constraint has been done, and only a selected requirement and constraints has been chosen. This paper will showed and make people understand why all the regulations and constraints are very important for the related ships to comply with.
THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA (SOLAS)
A special requirement for tanker has been included by the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) 1974.For tanker of 20,000 DWT and above, an emergency towing arrangement shall be fitted at both ends (Forward and Aft). (SOLAS, Chapter II-1, Reg 3-4). This is because of the incident that happened to the Amoco Cadiz. There is a difficulty during the salvation process which when the tugboat fail to tow the tanker because of the connection point wasn`t able to sustain the pulling force. In addition, the emergency towing system must be ensured that it can be deployed even the power are out onboard.
Figure 1: Emergency Towing Arrangement
Fire Safety provisions are much strict or a bit harsh for the tankers compared to the other cargo vessel. This is because of the product tanker carried the oil and a refined products. This type of products was exposed to the risk that can cause the fire to ignite. As a result, tankers are required to be...
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