Product Placement

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Product placement, or embedded marketing, is a form of advertisement, where branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, the story line of television shows, or news programs. The product placement is often not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured. Product placement became common in the 1980s. In April 2006, Broadcasting & Cable reported, "Two thirds of advertisers employ 'branded entertainment'—product placement—with the vast majority of that (80%) in commercial TV programming." The story, based on a survey by the Association of National Advertisers, said "Reasons for using in-show plugs varied from 'stronger emotional connection' to better dovetailing with relevant content, to targeting a specific group

Product placement refers to the practice of including a brand name product, Package e, signage or other trademark merchandise within a motion picture, television or other media vehicles for increasing the memorability of the brand and for instant recognition at the point of purchase. Product placements are commercial insertions within a particular media program intended to heighten the visibility of a brand, type of product or service. These insertions are not meant to be commercial break ups rather an integral part of the medium so that the visibility of the brand increases. Attempts are made for the viewer to read the product or the brand as a quality of the characters using and approving it. Researchers have shown that viewers like product placements (unless there are too many) because they enhance realism, aid in character development, create historical subtext, and provide a sense of familiarity. For marketers, the availability of a captive audience with greater reach than traditional advertisements, and the advantage of showing brands in their natural environment provide motivation for product placements (Turcotte, 1995)1.

Early examples
Product placement dates back to the nineteenth century in publishing.[citation needed] By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) he was a world-renowned literary giant to the extent transport and shipping companies lobbied to be mentioned in the story as it was published in serial form; however if he was actually paid to do so remains unknown.[6] Product placement is still used in books to some extent, particularly in novels. Recent scholarship in film and media studies has drawn attention to the fact that product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest actualities and cinematic attractions that characterised the first ten years of cinema history [7] [8] [edit] Placement in movies

Recognizable brand names appeared in movies from cinemas earliest history. Before films were even narrative forms in the sense that they are recognised today, industrial concerns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning has described as "cinematic attractions"[9] these were short films of no longer than one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film history (1895-1907) audiences did not go to see films as narrative art forms but as fairground attractions interesting for the amazing visual effects they appeared to be. This format was much better suited to product placement than the narrative form of cinema that came later when film making became a more organised industry. Taking this as a starting point, Leon Gurevitch has argued that early cinematic attractions share more in common with the adverts that emerged from the television industry in the 1950s than they do with traditional films.[10] Gurevitch suggests that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is more intertwined than previous historians have credited, suggesting that the birth of cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic kickstart that it provided early film makers.[11] Kerry Segrave details the industries that advertised in these early films and goes...
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