Product Placement

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Product placement, or embedded marketing,[1][2][3][4] is a form of advertisement, where branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, the story line of television shows, or news programs. The product placement is often not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured. Product placement became common in the 1980s. 1982 ET produced by Steven Spielberg featured Reese's Pieces.

In April 2006, Broadcasting & Cable reported, "Two thirds of advertisers employ 'branded entertainment'--product placement--with the vast majority of that (80%) in commercial TV programming." The story, based on a survey by the Association of National Advertisers, said "Reasons for using in-show plugs varied from 'stronger emotional connection' to better dovetailing with relevant content, to targeting a specific group."[5]Contents [hide] 1 Early examples

2 Placement in movies
2.1 Self Promotion
3 Categories and variations
4 Measuring effectiveness
5 Consumer response and economic impact
6 Products
6.1 Automobiles
6.2 Consumer electronics and computers
6.3 Food and drink
6.4 Travel
6.5 Tobacco
7 Radio, television and publishing
7.1 Reality TV
7.2 Public and educational television
7.3 TV programmes
7.4 Comic publishing
7.5 Music and recording industries
7.6 Payola and legal considerations
8 Extreme and unusual examples
8.1 Self-criticism
8.2 Faux product placement and parodies
8.3 Reverse placement
8.4 Virtual placement
8.5 Viewer Response
9 Product displacement
10 Further reading
11 References
12 External links

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Early examples

Product placement dates back to the nineteenth century in publishing. By the time he published the adventure novel, Around the World in Eighty Days the French writer Jules Verne was a world-renowned literary giant to the extent transport and shipping companies lobbied to be mentioned in the story as it was published in serial form.[citation needed] Product placement is still used in books to some extent, particularly in novels. [edit]

Placement in movies

Although recognizable brand names probably had appeared in movies prior to the 1920s, the weekly trade periodical Harrison's Reports published its first denunciation of that practice with respect to Red Crown gasoline appearing in the 1919 Fatty Arbuckle comedy The Garage.[6]

During the next four decades, Harrison's Reports frequently cited cases of on-screen brand name products[7], always condemning the practice as harmful to movie theaters. Publisher P. S. Harrison’s editorials strongly reflected his feelings against product placement in movies. An editorial in Harrison’s Reports criticized the collaboration between Corona Typewriter company and First National Pictures when a Corona typewriter appeared in the 1925 movie The Lost World.[8] Harrison's Reports published several incidents about Corona typewriters appearing in movies of the mid-1920s.

Among the famous silent movies to feature product placement was Wings (released in 1927), the first film to win the Oscar for Best Picture. It contained a plug for Hershey's chocolate.

Another early example in film occurs in the 1932 film Horse Feathers where Thelma Todd falls out of a canoe and into a river. She calls for a life saver and Groucho Marx tosses her the Life Savers candy.

The Marx Brothers, in the 1949 film Love Happy, Harpo Marx cavorts on a rooftop among various billboards and at one point escapes from the villains on the old Mobil logo, the "Flying Red Horse". Harrison's Reports severely criticized this scene in its movie review[9] and in a front-page editorial of the same issue.

The 1946 film It's a Wonderful Life by Frank Capra depicts a young boy with aspirations to be an explorer, displaying a prominent copy of National Geographic.

In the classic 1949 film noir Gun Crazy, the climactic crime is the payroll robbery of the Armour meat packing plant, where a Bulova clock is prominently seen....
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