Distribution is also a very important component of Logistics & Supply chain management. Distribution in supply chain management refers to the distribution of a good from one business to another. It can be factory to supplier, supplier to retailer, or retailer to end customer. It is defined as a chain of intermediaries; each passing the product down the chain to the next organization, before it finally reaches the consumer or end-user. This process is known as the 'distribution chain' or the 'channel.' Each of the elements in these chains will have their own specific needs, which the producer must take into account, along with those of the all-important end-user. Channels
A number of alternative 'channels' of distribution may be available: •Distributor, who sells to retailers via direct marketing, or brokers can also be used, •Retailer (also called dealer or reseller), who sells to end customers •Direct Distribution (Direct Marketing),where an organization sells its products directly to the end customer. For example in case of online purchases(Internet Marketing and E-commerce) there will be the seller and customer. For this the seller and the customer may depend on various shipping providers. •Advertisement typically used for the consumption goods
Distribution channels may not be restricted to physical products from producer to consumer in certain sectors, since both direct and indirect channels may be used. Hotels, for example, may sell their services (typically rooms) directly or through travel agents, tour operators, airlines, tourist boards, centralized reservation systems, etc. process of transfer the products or services from Producer to Customer or end user. There have also been some innovations in the distribution of services. For example, there has been an increase in franchising and in rental services - the latter offering anything from televisions through tools. There has also been some evidence of service integration, with services linking together, particularly in the travel and tourism sectors. For example, links now exist between airlines, hotels and car rental services. In addition, there has been a significant increase in retail outlets for the service sector. Outlets such as estate agencies and building society offices are crowding out traditional grocers from major shopping areas.
Channel Sales is nothing but a chain for to market a product through different sources. •Channel strategy
•Gravity & adventure
•Push and Pull strategy
•Product (or service)
The channel decision is very important. In theory at least, there is a form of trade-off: the cost of using intermediaries to achieve wider distribution is supposedly lower. Indeed, most consumer goods manufacturers could never justify the cost of selling direct to their consumers, except by mail order. Many suppliers seem to assume that once their product has been sold into the channel, into the beginning of the distribution chain, their job is finished. Yet that distribution chain is merely assuming a part of the supplier's responsibility; and, if they have any aspirations to be market-oriented, their job should really be extended to managing all the processes involved in that chain, until the product or service arrives with the end-user. This may involve a number of decisions on the part of the supplier: •Channel membership
•Monitoring and managing channels
Type of marketing channel
1.Intensive distribution - Where the majority of resellers stock the 'product' with convenience products,...