Procurement Methods

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GROUP 4
PRESENTATION ON EARLY CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP CASE: FOREIGN AUTOSHOP
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According to the Encarta dictionary,” a leader is somebody who guides or directs others to achieve a goal”. “A leader is a person who has a vision, a drive and a commitment to achieve that vision, and the skills to make it happen. Let's look at each of those in detail”.A leader uses a wide variety of interpersonal skills to influence others to accomplish goals. “Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of an organization”.Simply put, “Leadership is organizing a group people to achieve a common goal”.CONTINGENCY THEORIESA contingency theory is about how leader traits or behaviors are related to leadership effectiveness in different situations. The leader’s situation may either enhance or weaken the effect of a leader’s traits and behaviors. Theories that explains leadership effectives in terms of situational change are called contingency theories of leadership. That is the context and whatever style the leader uses will determine his or her effectiveness.Mostly importantly the contingency theory stresses that leaders are not successful in all situations. Thus no leadership style is best in all situations.For example, the former President Jerry John Rawlings lost the 2000 elections in Ghana because at that point in time, Ghanaians wanted change from his autocratic style of leadership to a more democratic style. Thus Ghanaians were fed up with his autocratic style of leadership so he was not fit for that situation at that point in time and so he failed as a leader to Ghanaians. There are six types of contingency theories namely; * Path-goal theory * The multiple-Linkage model * LPC contingency * Leader substitutes theory * Cognitive resources theory * Situational Leadership theoryPath-Goal TheoryIt is about how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. All the motivation is aim enhancing performance and employee satisfactions. Under this theory the leader must identify what motivates the employee. Basically, the theory says that leaders says that leaders lead their people to higher level of performance by rewarding their employees for achieving set work goals and then by clarifying for their workers how to achieve these goals, while at the same time making it easier for the workers to achieve the goals. Path-goal theory is based on expectancy theory. The expectancy theory says that you will be highly motivated to achieve a particular goal if you believe that you will receive something of value for achieving that goal. For example, in a working environment where there are reward packages for the hardest working employee, they are able to give all their best in the task assigned to them in order to receive that reward. The Multiple-Linkage TheoryIt is about the leader’s behavior and the performance outcomes of subordinates. That is the leaders behavior can influence subordinates performance. For the leader to be successful, it must be based on the six intervening variables which includes; task commitment, ability and role clarity, organization of work, cooperation and mutual trust, resources and support and external coordination. However, the relative importance of the intervening variables depends on the aspect of the situation. LPC Contingency TheoryLPC stands for “least preferred worker”. The idea behind this theory is that knowing how someone feels about their least preferred coworker will tell us something about how that person is likely to relate to others. That is his/her approach to relationships. There are two levels of LPC, thus high LPC score and low LPC score. A high LPC score suggests a person who is quite lenient that is he or she is easy going and not strict toward others, whereas a low LPC score suggests someone who is...
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