Process Theories of Motivation

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Process Theories of Motivation

Process theories are theories of motivation which focus on how we make choices in respect of our goals. It places emphasis on the actually process of motivation

Equity Theory

Stacy Adams (1963,1965) ‘we are motivated to react in situations which we perceive to be inequitable or unfair’. Equity theories on our how feelings of how fairly we have been treated in comparison to someone else. Once you have decided inequity has take place, you will then ask yourself how you will deal with this equity tension. Can you find an explanation for it? Are you in a position to do anything about it?

It provides managers with explanations as to how beliefs and attitudes affect job performance. It shows employers that they need to pay attention to what employee’s perceive as fair or unfair. If employees feel equity is taking place then they are more likely to be cooperative and supportive of implementations.

Expectancy Theory

Theory is based on the fundamental calculation that you make – whats in it for me?

Vrooms calculation of work motivation is based on three things.

Valence – How much do you value the outcome?

Instrumentality – Would performing the action lead to the outcome?

Expectancy – Would I be able to achieve this outcome? Can I do it?

Force of motivation: F = V x I x E

Porter & Lawler further developed Vroom’s theory and other factors can influence people’s actions.

Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Model –

This takes a much more practical view as it considers what else is going on in a person’s life.

According to expectancy theory, managers must take make individualised rewards. They must establish clear procedures for evaluation of an individual’s performance.

Goal Setting

A goal is the what, objectives are the how. An objective has to SMART.

Locke’s theory argues that goal setting is more appropriately viewed as a motivational...
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