Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect
Process Safety and Environmental Protection
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/psep
Large scale high pressure jet ﬁres involving natural gas and natural gas/hydrogen mixtures Barbara Joan Lowesmith ∗ , Geoffrey Hankinson
Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
a b s t r a c t
A series of six large scale high pressure jet ﬁres were conducted using natural gas and natural gas/hydrogen mixtures. Three tests involved natural gas and three involved a mixture of natural gas and hydrogen containing approximately 24% by volume hydrogen. For each fuel, the three tests involved horizontal releases from 20, 35 and 50 mm diameter holes at a gauge pressure of approximately 60 bar. During the experiments, the ﬂame length and the incident radiation ﬁeld produced around the ﬁre were measured. The ﬁres also engulfed a 1 m diameter horizontal pipe placed across the ﬂow direction and about halfway along the ﬂame. This pipe was instrumented to measure the heat ﬂuxes to the pipe. The data obtained is compared with previous data obtained for various hydrocarbons at large scale. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Jet ﬁres; Large scale experiments; Natural gas/hydrogen mixtures; Heat loads
Hydrogen is seen as an important energy carrier for the future which offers carbon free emissions at the point of use. However, transition to the hydrogen economy is likely to be lengthy and will take considerable investment with major changes to the technologies required for the manufacture, transport and use of hydrogen. In order to facilitate the transition to the hydrogen economy, the EC funded project Naturalhy (NATURALHY, 2010) has studied the potential for the existing natural gas pipeline networks to transport hydrogen from manufacturing sites to hydrogen users....