Process Design

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4.1

Chapter 4 Process design

4.1

Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010

4.2

Key operations questions
In Chapter 4 – Process design – Slack et al. identify the following key questions: • What is process design? • What objectives should process design have? • How does volume and variety affect process design?

• How are processes designed in detail?

4.2

Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010

4.3

To design:
design (v.) 1540s, from Latin designare "mark out, devise, choose, designate, appoint" from de- "out" (see de-) + signare "to mark," from signum "a mark, sign". Originally in English with the meaning attached to designate; many modern uses of design are metaphoric extensions.

to form or conceive in the mind; to invent, to work out the structure or form of (something), as by making a sketch, outline, or pattern for a specific purpose; to mark out or designate the boundaries and functions of the system Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010

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4.4

Nature and purpose of the design activity
Products, services and the processes which produce them all have to be designed. In manufacturing operations overlapping the activities of product and process design is beneficial. In most service operations the overlap between service and process design is implicit in the nature of service.

• Product/service design has an impact on the process design and vice versa.

4.4

Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010

4.5

The design of products/services and processes are interrelated and should be treated together

The design of your operations is the mould where your planning is going to be based Products and services should be designed in such a way that they can be created effectively and efficiently. Effective = doing the right things (goals)

Efficient = doing the right things in the right way (performance)

4.5

Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010

4.6

Process mapping symbols
Process mapping symbols derived from ‘Scientific Management’ Operation (an activity that directly adds value) Inspection (a check of some sort) Transport (a movement of something) Delay (a wait, e.g. for materials) Direction of flow Storage (deliberate storage, as opposed to a delay)

Process mapping symbols derived from Systems Analysis
Beginning or end of process

Activity

Input or Output from the process

Decision (exercising discretion)

4.6

Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010

4.7

Designing processes A production process transforms resources into products/services (including the customer!) • There are different ‘process types’. • Process types are defined by the volume and variety of ‘items’ they process.

• Process types go by different names depending on whether they produce products or services in different volume and variety. 4.7

Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010

4.8

Process design Volume-variety and design
The four V’s of operations were volume, variety, variation and visibility. The first two usually go together (high variety usually means low volume, high volume normally means low variety). Volume and variety determine the way we design performance objectives - quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and cost

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4.8

Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010...
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