1. Theoretical lexicography, its aims, problems and function 5-10
1. The concept of “lexicography”. Aims and functions of lexicography. 5-6 1.2 Problems of lexicography. 7-10
2. Language norm and connection between lexicology and lexicography 11-16
2.1 Problems of language norms. 11-13 2.2 Analysis of the normative norms of dictionary entries. 14-16
The course paper is devoted to functioning of concept "Language difficulties" in the theory of language norm in lexicography. Since 50th of XX century began the mass edition of practical manuals, short dictionaries, reference books and popular scientific editions concentrated on private and general problems of the language norms. By now there are more than 100 orthological dictionaries, and almost half of them have such problems as “language difficulties”. Though, that is an obvious thing that all these editions give coverage to problems of language norms, in scientific and methodological linguistic publications dedicated to problems of language normalization and codification and language norm variation, the item “language difficulties” are not discussed at all. Furthermore, in introductorial articles of these dictionaries authors always avoid of using such words as “difficulties”, “difficult” (sometimes they substitute them with term “complex”) and don’t give detailed interpretation of these difficulties or problems. In other words scientists consider the meaning “language difficulties” to be obvious and not worth to be investigated in a special way. So this problem is still unsolved by now and demands more investigation in linguistic as well in lexicography. Meanwhile, due to development of internet technologies appeared a good opportunity to objectify our conception about language difficulties our language speakers face often: we can explore the archives of questions and answers of reference services of language, requests of search system users, electronical texts and libraries. All these requests of dictionary users is the evidence of the actuality of the given problem, linguists and lexicographers should go on investigating all the problems of language norm in lexicography and find the most effective decision to make dictionaries more qualitative, because they still desired to be more productive and precise. Dictionaries are required in all fields of activity, especially in translation studies, wrong translation at least of one word can lead to a lot of troubles for everyone. A dictionary is known to be a reliable reference book which helps students to learn a foreign language. Good learner’s dictionaries give real help with correct pronunciation, clearly explained grammar patterns, usage, register labels and illustrative examples. Thereby appeal to the concept of language problems in language norm and their investigation in system-wide lexicographical position is doubtless a relevance problem. The object of the research is a language norm investigated from the position of professional lexicographer dealing with the compilation of dictionaries and reference books for a competent native speaker. The subject of the research are language difficulties: 1) existing in the minds of the language speakers and registered as questions addressed to teachers and linguists (difficulties in accentology, pronunciation, lexicology, semantics, grammar, spelling-orthography and punctuation); 2) presented as units of lexicographical description (headline words) in orthological dictionaries of the language; The aim of the research is a theoretical explanation of the term “language norm problems” and it’s transference from...