Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning
A Guide to Best Practices
26 August, 2010
Todd Litman, Robin Blair, Bill Demopoulos, Nils Eddy, Anne Fritzel, Danelle Laidlaw, Heath Maddox, Katherine Forster
This guide covers all aspects of pedestrian and bicycle planning. It is intended for policy makers, planners and advocates who want the best current information on ways to make their communities better places for walking and cycling. It provides basic information on various planning and design concepts, and offers extensive references to help implement them. It describes general nonmotorized planning practices, how to measure and predict nonmotorized travel, how to evaluate and prioritize projects, and how to implement various programs that support nonmotorized transportation. It covers planning for paths, sidewalks, bikelanes, street improvements, road and path maintenance, road safety, personal security, universal access (including features to accommodate people with disabilities), nonmotorized traffic law enforcement, education and encouragement programs, and integration with a community’s strategic plans and various other programs. There are also appendices that provide more detailed information on planning, design and evaluation.
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Transport planning practices must change if they are to incorporate nonmotorized modes. While walking and cycling have long been recognized as important activities, mobility and access as measured in traditional planning practices focused on motor vehicle travel. There is increasing recognition that balanced transportation choices are important to individual travelers and society overall. This guide presents best practices for nonmotorized transport planning.
Planning for nonmotorized travel can benefit your community in many ways. It can remove barriers to mobility and increase the safety and comfort of pedestrians and cyclists, broaden travel options for non-drivers, reduce conflicts between motorists and other road users, reduce automobile traffic and the problems it creates, increase recreational activity and exercise, encourage nonmotorized tourism, better accommodate people with disabilities, and help create more livable communities. Improved pedestrian and cycling conditions can benefit everybody in your community regardless of how much they use nonmotorized travel modes.
This guide describes how to develop local pedestrian and bicycle plans. It discusses reasons that communities should develop such plans, provides specific instructions for developing your planning process and creating your plan, discusses how to integrate nonmotorized planning into other local planning activities, and provides an extensive list of pedestrian and bicycle planning resources. This guide describes how to use available resources most efficiently to improve walking and cycling conditions in your community.
A pedestrian and cycling plan is not just a map showing paths and trails. It can address a variety of issues including:
1. Coordination of nonmotorized transportation improvements with other community plans. 1. Encouraging nonmotorized transport for transportation and recreation. 1. Nonmotorized safety education programs.
1. Traffic management and traffic calming.
1. Improving enforcement of traffic laws related to nonmotorized travel. 1. Pedestrian and bicycle facility planning and design.
Table of Contents
I. Introduction: Why Plan for Walking and Cycling
Transport Planning Overview
Scoping and Background Research
Measuring Current Nonmotorized Travel
Predicting Potential Nonmotorized Travel
Evaluating Existing Conditions and Facilities
Identify and Evaluate Constraints and Opportunities
Budgeting and Evaluation
Economic Development Impacts of Nonmotorized Transport
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