Problems Faced by Children

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  • Topic: Tobacco, Smoking, Nicotine
  • Pages : 80 (27505 words )
  • Download(s) : 846
  • Published : January 3, 2012
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Hookah are a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe for smoking. Originally from India. The hookah was a symbol of pride and honour for the landlords, kings and other such high class people. Now,the hookah has gained immense popularity, especially in the Middle East. A hookah operates by water filtration and indirect heat. It can be used for smoking herbal fruits, tobacco, or cannabis.

* Kretek
Kretek are cigarettes made with a complex blend of tobacco, cloves and a flavoring "sauce". It was first introduced in the 1880s in Kudus, Java, to deliver the medicinal eugenol of cloves to the lungs. The quality and variety of tobacco play an important role in kretek production, from which kretek can contain more than 30 types of tobacco. Minced dried clove buds weighing about 1/3 of the tobacco blend are added to add flavoring. In 2004 the United States prohibited cigarettes from having a "characterizing flavor" of certain ingredients other than tobacco and menthol, thereby removing kretek from being classified as cigarettes.

* Passive smoking
Passive smoking is the usually involuntary consumption of smoked tobacco. Second-hand smoke (SHS) is the consumption where the burning end is present, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or third-hand smoke is the consumption of the smoke that remains after the burning end has been extinguished. Because of its perceived negative implications, this form of consumption has played a central role in the regulation of tobacco products.

* Pipe smoking
Pipe smoking typically consists of a small chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of the tobacco to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece (the bit). Shredded pieces of tobacco are placed into the chamber and ignited. Tobaccos for smoking in pipes are often carefully treated and blended to achieve flavour nuances not available in other tobacco products.

* Roll-Your-Own
Roll-Your-Own or hand-rolled cigarettes, often called 'rollies', are very popular particularly in European countries. These are prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers, and filters all bought separately. They are usually much cheaper than ready-made cigarettes.

* Vaporizer
A vaporizer is a device used to sublimate the active ingredients of plant material. Rather than burning the herb, which produces potentially irritating, toxic, or carcinogenic by-products; a vaporizer heats the material in a partial vacuum so that the active compounds contained in the plant boil off into a vapor. Medical administration of a smoke substance often prefer this method as to directly pyrolyzing the plant material.

a) Physiology

A graph that shows the efficiency of smoking as a way to absorb nicotine compared to other forms of intake. The active substances in tobacco, especially cigarettes, are administered by burning the leaves and inhaling the vaporised gas that results. This quickly and effectively delivers substances into the bloodstream by absorption through the alveoli in the lungs. The lungs contain some 300 million alveoli, which amounts to a surface area of over 70 m2 (about the size of a tennis court). This method is not completely efficient as not all of the smoke will be inhaled, and some amount of the active substances will be lost in the process of combustion, pyrolysis. Pipe and Cigar smoke are not inhaled because of its high alkalinity, which are irritating to the trachea and lungs. However, because of its higher alkalinity (pH 8.5) compared to cigarette smoke (pH 5.3), non-ionised nicotine is more readily absorbed through the mucous membranes in the mouth. Nicotine absorption from cigar and pipe, however, is much less than that from cigarette smoke. The inhaled substances trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings. The cholinergic receptors are often triggered by the naturally occurring neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine and Nicotine express chemical similarities, which allows Nicotine to...
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