Problems caused by Acid Rain

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Acid rain * Acid Rain - is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. * Problem caused by Acid Rain

Acid rain is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Burning oil, gas and coal in power stations releases Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. Burning oil and petrol in motor vehicles puts nitrogen oxides (NOX) into the atmosphere. These gases mix with water droplets in the atmosphere creating weak solutions of nitric and sulphuric acids. When precipitation occurs these solutions fall as acid rain. * Human activities that caused acid rain

When humans burn fossil fuels, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are released into the atmosphere. These chemical gases react with water, oxygen, and other substances to form mild solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid. Winds may spread these acidic solutions across the atmosphere and over hundreds of miles. When acid rain reaches Earth, it flows across the surface in runoff water, enters water systems, and sinks into the soil. * Ozone - is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light and also atmospheric electrical discharges, and is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere * Groun0d-level-ozone - is a colorless and highly irritating gas that forms just above the earth's surface. It is called a "secondary" pollutant because it is produced when two primary pollutants react in sunlight and stagnant air. These two primary pollutants are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). * Ground-level ozone affects one’s health - is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Ozone is likely to reach unhealthy levels on hot sunny days in urban environments. Ozone can also be transported long distances by wind. For this reason, even rural areas can experience high ozone levels. * Oil spill - is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. * Causes of oil spill - The term "oil spill" typically evokes images of crude oil pouring out of an oil tanker in the sea due to an accident, but it can be used to refer to any type of oil release. Ocean oil spills are among the most commonly depicted and catastrophic forms, though they can also occur on land. Accidents frequently cause spills as oil is released from a container or pipeline due to damage or mechanical failure. There are also oil spills that occur as a result of dumping, often on land, which then runs off into water; natural seepage of oil can also be damaging to the environment. * Effects of Oil spill -

Oil spills have affected many people and many industries. They affect both the economy and the environment. Some of the things affected are:

* marine life
* local industries (often tourist industry)
* fishing industry

Effect on marine life
People immediately think of birds and fish as being species affected by an oil spill. On the news you will often see large numbers of dead birds and dead fish washed up on the beach. Some birds die because they have ingested oil. However, more commonly the...
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