Dr. Rakesh Narayan
Reader and Head
Deptt. of Geography
Doranda College, Ranchi.
Tourism, the Sun-rise industry of the millennium has emerged as the largest economic activity of the world. Tourism is now recognised as an industry that generates a number of Social and economic benefits. Its importance as an important instrument for economic development and employment generation, particularly in remote and backward areas, has now been well recognised all over the world.
A glimps through the tourism activity in this country, it appears, has been suffering from a very narrow Connotation in the sense that domestic and foreign tourists make a short visit to places of historical, Archaeological and religious importance. Adventure tourism is also being promoted in some parts of the country. It will not be out of place to mention that tourism also offers immense opportunities for economic activities of the local population and thus, can be rightfully treated as an industry with people's participation, Govt. Support and involvement of NGOs. Much is needed in this area.
Eco-tourism is an advanced thought on development of tourism in the natural surroundings of forests, wild animals, local population preserving the scenic beauty of the area and also the cultural background of human population. It may be mentioned here that farming and forests are the two main planks of the cultural ethos of the tribal people of Jharkhand and may be regarded as a positive and helpful human factor. The beauty of this concept is the active participation of people inhabiting the area for promoting tourism without degrading the natural surroundings. In this way many income generating activities for the local population will emerge and they will be benefited economically and socially also mixing with the domestic and foreign visitors.
ECO Tourism : The Concept :-
The term ECO-Tourism was first coined by a Mexican environmentalist Hector Lascurain in 1983. Initially the term was used to describe nature-based travel to relatively Undisturbed natural areas with an emphasis on education. The concept has, however, developed into a scientific approach to the planning, management and development of sustainable tourism, products and activities. It can be defined as travel to natural attractions that contributes to their conservation, respects the integrity of local communities and respects the integrity of local communities and enhances the tourist's understanding of the natural attraction, its conservation and local community. It is decentralised in nature and seeks to integrate rural development.
According to the world tourism organisation :- "Tourism that involves traveling to relatively undisturbed natural areas with the specified object of studying admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural aspect (both the Past or the present) found in these areas is defined as ECO-Tourism.
As per the general definition ECO-Tourism is :- (A) Nature Based (Visitors are mainly interested in observing and appreciating nature and traditional cultures in natural areas) (B) Contributes to the Bio-diversity Conservation (C) Supports the well being of local people. (D) Involves responsible action by both tourists and local people to minimize negative environmental and Socio-cultural impacts. (E) Requires the lowest possible consumption of non-renewable resources. (F) Stresses local ownership, as well as business opportunities for local people. Potentials of Eco Tourism in Jharkhand
Jharkhand, formally a part of united Bihar became the 28th State of Indian federation on the 15th Nov. 2000. The whole State is constituted of 22 Districts, 211 Community Development Blocks, 3744 Panchayats and 33,315 Villages. The state is extended from roughly 220 N. Lat. to 24037' N. Lat. and 830 15' East longitude to 87010' East longitude with a total area of...