Problem of the extinction of many rare species
The problem of the extinction of many rare species is becoming more and more serious in the recent years, so the governments of the world have established many nature reserves to protect these species. Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve is one of the most important wetland kinds of national nature reserves. Chongming is the world's largest alluvial island which is formed by the mud and sand silt where the Yangtze River and East China Sea collide, is growing by about 80 to 110 meters annually as it stretches into the sea. It is estimated to have an area of 326 square kilometres, of which 241.55 square kilometres belong to the nature reserve. Chongming Dongtan provides good living conditions for varieties living things because of its unique natural environment. It is a collecting and distributing centre on the way of the birds' migration. According to the record of Chongming Dongtan, a total of 265 species of birds have been observed at the wetland, 34 of which are protected by the Chinese government. The most important role of Chongming Dongtan Bird Nature Reserve is to protect the birds and the natural environment that they depend for their survival. In 2002, the Dongtan Wetland joined the Convention on Wetland of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat - short for the Ramsar Convention - and was designated world Ramar Site 1144. As a Ramsar Site, it has made great contribution of the protection of those shorebirds. I will introduce the details of pressures, problems and prospects about Chongming Dongtan Ramsar Site in the following parts. Chongming Dongtan has been a popular issued argued by the public and the government organizations. Section 2
The Chongming East End Nature Reserve for Wetlands and Birds is not only a national nature reserve in China, but also an internationally recognized Ramsar Site. There are quite a lot of strengths of Chongming Dongtan enable itself to become such a nature reserve with the international standards. Ø It has rich soils and extensive estuarine wetlands which are abundant with fresh and saltwater marshes, tidal creeks and inter-tidal mudflats. These inter-tidal mudflats offer haven for a diversity of birds and fish along spawning or migration routes. Ø Its location is at the middle of the East Asian-Australian migratory shorebird flyway which is one of eight major bird migration routes in the world. The Dongtan Wetland is the birds's first station when heading north and their last stop when flying back to Australia. Millions of swans, geese, and shorebirds like the Dunlin, Great Knot and Whimbrels use Chongming as a destination for staging and wintering when they travel along Asia's north-south migratory route from as far away as Alaska and New Zealand. Ø It is a quite primary habitat for those rare and endangered birds. According to the recent year's records, there are four kinds of wild birds which are protected at the national first level and thirty five kinds of wild birds which are protected at the national secondary level. In addition, there are twenty kinds of birds being listed in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals. Ø It provides shorebirds food and haven during their back route. When flying home to the southern hemisphere, the birds have already bred and their journey takes them about 90 days. What's more, after the first 5000 kilometers of their trip to Dongtan, the birds are in need of food and refreshment to restore their weight, up to 60 percent of which has been lost during 15 days of non-stop flying. They live on grass seed, shells, snails and the tiny crabs found in Dongtan's pools, reeds and shallows. Ø It has abundant of amphibians and retiles, invertebrate animal resources and those plants with high production such as reed and mat bulrush. All these resources provide the guarantee for the migratory and proliferation of the birds and fishes as well as for agriculture and fishery industry of the...
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