Abstract The maritime transportation in Turkey has been improved due to recent developments that are based on the country’s strategic and geopolitical location. But in last decades, Turkish ports face with major problems. Being located in the core city surrounded with historical centre and lack of expansion area are some of the main handicaps that Turkish ports have to solve. Port of Haydarpasa, located in Istanbul, performs less than Turkey average and loses its competitiveness every passing year. Existing facilities of the port would not provide the needs in long term. One of the biggest problems is the location in urban area that precludes further expansion. Yet a simple question remains: What to do such a port in urban area, surrounded with residential and losing its competitiveness? This paper is composed of two main parts. First part focuses on general view of Turkish maritime sector. Second part evaluates Port of Haydarpasa and a concerned urban regeneration project remarks. An urban regeneration project concerning with this port area, has a chance to develop a “growth pole” for not only in Turkey but in the world. Key words: Turkish ports, Istanbul Urban Regeneration Projects, Competitiveness
PROBLEM ANALYSIS OF TURKISH PORTS AND THE NEED FOR REGENERATION: HAYDARPASA PORT AS A CASE STUDY 1. GENERAL VIEW OF TURKISH MARITIME SECTOR 1.1. Transport Networks in Turkey The logistics activities in Turkey have been improved due to recent developments that are based on the country’s strategic and geopolitical location. The transport function of logistics has been provided throughout maritime, land, pipeline and air related logistics services. All modes of transport –land, sea, air, rail and pipeline- are used in Turkey for a variety of different commodities. The transport sector has a significant role in the economy since Turkey covers an extensive area, is surrounded by three seas to the south, north and west. Turkey’s coast lines which encompass it on three sides with the Mediterranean Sea on the south, the Black Sea to the north and the Aegean Sea to the west which seems as a natural dock, make country open to entire world and supply a major competitive advantage in international logistics. In the northwest of Turkey, there is also an important inland Sea of Marmara that connects the Black Sea with rest of the world through Istanbul and Canakkale Straits.
Figure 1: International Transport Corridors and Main Turkish ports (Source: Tuna, 2007) Turkey has a land bridge position both in East-West and South-North axes within relationship with the Middle Asian Turkic Republics. Turkey’s geography allows proximity to Middle East and Caspian petrol reserves. Besides this, economic developments in CIS, Central Asia and Caucasia have positive affects on Turkey. Turkey plays a central role in 2
providing opportunities to Europe for access to Middle East and Caucasian markets and has even strategic position for transshipment function to Black Sea countries. At the west side of Turkey, Europe Continent covers 7% of world population and realizes 40% of the world trade. At the east side of Turkey, Asia continent covers 50% of world population and realizes 5%of world trade. Turkey’s geographical position offers tremendous multimodal transport opportunities on the basis of transport requirements of the Europe-Asia axis and there have been very crucial international transport network projects which involve Turkey in the region. Those international corridors could be evaluated in to two basic view which are supported by...