The Collier Encyclopedia’s definition for probability is the concern for events that are not certain and the reasonableness of one expectation over another. These expectations are usually based on some facts about past events or what is known as statistics. Collier describes statistics to be the science of the classification and manipulation of data in order to draw inferences. Inferences here can be read to mean expectations, leading to the conclusion that the two go hand in hand in accomplishing what mankind has tried to accomplish since the beginning of time – predicting the future. It is the notion of science that this is the most accurate way to predict events yet to occur and this has lead to it being the most widely accepted “fortune telling” tool in the world today. Probability and Statistics most widespread use is in the arena of gambling. Gambling is big all over the world and lots of money is won and lost with their aid. In horse racing especially the statistics of a horse in terms of its physical condition and winning history sway numbers of persons into believing that the mathematical evidence that is derived can actually be a good indicator of a race’s outcome. Usually it is if the odds or probability are great in favor of the desired outcome. However the future is uncertain and races can turn out any of a number of different ways. The field of medicine is another high subscriber to this forecasting technique. Potential diagnoses are frequently made based on a patient’s history or that of his ancestors and the calculated likelihood of him/her acquiring certain conditions. Statistics and probability aid in the decision making process of which test may be required for a given symptom and how a possible outbreak may be detected and contained. Strategies for isolating and dealing with diseases are often made with the aid of statistics on the percentage of a population that may have been infected and the probability...

...M227
Chapter 1 Nature of Probability and Statistics
OBJECTIVES
Demonstrate knowledge of statistical terms. Differentiate between the two branches of statistics. Identify types of data. Identify the measurement level for each variable. Identify the four basic sampling techniques. Explain the difference between an observational and an experimental study. Explain how statistics can be used and misused. Explain the importance of computers and calculators in statistics.
Statistics is the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data. Descriptive statistics consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data. Inferential statistics consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations hypothesis testing, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions. (Probability, Hypothesis testing, relationships between variables, predictions) Probability is the chance of an event occurring. A population consists of all subjects that are being studied. A sample is a group of subjects selected from a population.
Variables and Types of Data
In order to gain knowledge about seemingly haphazard events, statisticians collect information for variables that describe the events. A variable is a characteristic or attribute...

...I. ProbabilityTheory
* A branch of mathematics concerned with the analysis of random phenomena. The outcome of a random event cannot be determined before it occurs, but it may be any one of several possible outcomes. The actual outcome is considered to be determined by chance.
* The word probability has several meanings in ordinary conversation. Two of these are particularly important for the development and applications of the mathematical theory of probability. One is the interpretation of probabilities as relative frequencies, for which simple games involving coins, cards, dice, and roulette wheels provide examples.
* It is the likeliness of an event happening based on all the possible outcomes. The ratio for the probability of an event 'P' occurring is P (event) = number of favorable outcomes divided by number of possible outcomes.
Example:
A coin is tossed on a standard 8×8 chessboard.
What is the theoretical probability that the coin lands on a black square?
Choices:
A. 0.5
B. 0.25
C. 0.42
D. 0.6
Correct answer: A
Solution:
Step 1: Theoretical probability = number of favorable outcomes / number of possible outcomes.
Step 2: The probability of the coin lands on the black square is 32.
Step 3: Total number of outcomes = 64.
Step 4: P (event) =
Step 5: == 0.5
Step 6: The theoretical...

...ProbabilityTheory and Game of Chance
Jingjing Xu
April 24, 2012
I. INTRODUCTION
Probabilitytheory is the mathematical foundation of statistics, and it can be applied to many areas requiring large data analysis. Curiously, that the study on probabilitytheory has its root in parlor games and gambling. In 17th century, dice gambling was a very common entertainment among the upper class. An Italian mathematician and gambler Gerolamo Cardano founded the concept of probability by studying the rules of rolling dice: since a die is a cube with each of its six faces showing a different number from 1 to 6, when it is rolled, the probability of seeing each number is equal. Therefore, some of the gamblers began to wonder, that taking a pair of dice and rolling them a couple of times, which has the larger probability of seeing a sum of 9 or seeing a sum of 10? What about seeing double sixes? In a correspondence between Blaise Pascal and Pierre Fermat, the problems were resolved, and this triggered the first theorem in the modern theory of probability.
II. BASIC DEFINITIONS
Definition 1
In probabilitytheory, the...

...
HISTORY OF STATISTICS
The history of statistics can be said to start around 1749 although, over time, there have been changes to the interpretation of the word statistics. By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection ofdemographic and economic data by states. In the early 19th century, the meaning of "statistics" broadened to include the discipline concerned with the collection, summary, and analysis of data. Today statistics is widely employed in government, business, and all the sciences. Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation, and have allowed statisticians to develop "computer-intensive" methods.
The Word statistics have been derived from Latin word “Status” or the Italian word “Statista”, meaning of these words is “Political State” or a Government. Shakespeare used a word Statist is his drama Hamlet (1602). In the past, the statistics was used by rulers. The application of statistics was very limited but rulers and kings needed information about lands, agriculture, commerce, population of their states to assess their military potential, their wealth, taxation and other aspects of government.
Gottfried Achenwall used the word statistik at a German University in 1749 which means that political science of different countries. In 1771 W. Hooper (Englishman) used the...

...History and Development of Statistics
Simple forms of statistics have been used since the beginning of civilization, when pictorial representations or other symbols were used to record numbers of people, animals, and inanimate objects on skins, slabs, or sticks of wood and the walls of caves. Before 3000 BC theBabylonians used small clay tablets to record tabulations of agricultural yields and of commodities bartered or sold. The Egyptians analyzed the population and material wealth of their country before beginning to build the pyramids in the 31st century bc. The biblical books of Numbers and 1 Chronicles are primarily statistical works, the former containing two separatecensuses of the Israelites and the latter describing the material wealth of various Jewish tribes.Similar numerical records existed in China before 2000 BC.
The ancient Greeks held censuses to be used as bases for taxation as early as 594 BC.The Roman Empire was the first government to gather extensive data about the population, area,and wealth of the territories that it controlled. During the Middle Ages in Europe fewcomprehensive censuses were made. The Carolingian kings Pepin the Short and Charlemagneordered surveys of ecclesiastical holdings: Pepin in 758 and Charlemagne in 762. Following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, William I, king of England, ordered a census to be taken;the information gathered in this census, conducted in 1086, was recorded in the...

...Chapter 1: Introduction
1. Origin of Statistics:
The word Statistics seems to have been derived from Latin word ‘Status’, German word ‘Statistik’ or Italian word ‘Statista’. Each of these means “Political State’. In ancient time governments used to collect the information regarding the population & the property of the State.
In India an efficient system of collecting official and administrative statistics existed even more than 2000 Years ago, in particular, during the period of Chandra Gupta Maurya (324 – 300 BC). From Kautilay’s Arthashastra it is known that even before 300 BC a very good system of collecting Vital Statistics and registration of Births and Deaths was in vogue. Raja Todormal (1556-1605 AD), the land & revenue minister of Akbar, maintained good records of Land and Agriculture Statistics.
In Germany, the Systematic collection of official statistics originated towards the end of 18th century. They collect data to have an idea of the relative strength of different German states, information regarding population, output of Industrial & Agricultural sector.
In England
Statistics were the outcomes of Napoleonic war.
Vital Statistics Originated at 17th century. Captain John Graunt (of London) (1620-1674) – Father of Vital Statistics, the first man who studied about the statistics of Births & Deaths....

...[pic]
TITILE : THEORY OF PROBABILITY
NAME : KYRIOS JOYCE ERDAYA RAJOO
IC NO : 930603-10-5700
CLASS : 5 MULIA
TEACHER : MRS.MALLIKA
a) History of Probability
The scientific study of probability is a modern development. Gambling shows that there has been an interest in quantifying the ideas of probability for millennia, but exact mathematical descriptions of use in those problems only arose much later.
According to Richard Jeffrey, "Before the middle of the seventeenth century, the term 'probable' (Latin probabilis) meant approvable, and was applied in that sense, univocally, to opinion and to action. A probable action or opinion was one such as sensible people would undertake or hold, in the circumstances. However, in legal contexts especially, 'probable' could also apply to propositions for which there was good evidence.
Aside from some elementary considerations made by Girolamo Cardano in the 16th century, the doctrine of probabilities dates to the correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal (1654). Christiaan Huygens (1657) gave the earliest known scientific treatment of the subject. Jakob Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi (posthumous, 1713) and Abraham de Moivre's Doctrine of Chances (1718) treated the subject as a...

...Probability
1.) AE-2 List the enduring understandings for a content-area unit to be implemented over a three- to five- week time period. Explain how the enduring understandings serve to contextualize (add context or way of thinking to) the content-area standards.
Unit: Data and Probability
Time: 3 weeks max
Enduring Understanding:
“Student Will Be Able To:
- Know what probability is (chance, fairness, a way to observe our random world, the different representations)
- Know what the difference between experimental and theoretical probability is
- Be able to find the probability of a single event
- Be able to calculate the probability of sequential events, with and without replacement
- Understand what a fair game is and be able to determine if a game is fair
- Be able to make a game fair
- Be able to use different approaches (such as tree diagrams, area models, organized lists) to solve probability problems in life.
- Be able to predict the characteristics of an entire population from a representative sample
- Be able to analyze a representative sample for flaws in its selection
- Be able to create and interpret different statistical representations of data (bar graphs, line graphs, circle graphs, stem-and-leaf)
- Be able to choose an appropriate way to display various sets of data
- Know why the Fundamental Counting Principle works and be...

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