Private Channels

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Brief History of Cable Television:
The traditional mass media had a confined sphere in countries where it initially grew, functioning strictly in line with the values, norms, traditions and basic requirements of the local populace. But, the inventions of new technologies like satellite communication, cable television and internet has helped it across national boundaries and addresses the worldwide audience. These boosting inventions have, in fact made the world a global village by transforming media into an international entity. We are living in an era which has frequently been characterized as ‘the age of communication revolution’ a cycle of profound and accelerating social and cultural change often attributed to the impact of new media technologies. This communication revolution is, in fact a succession of three overlapping technological stages that have taken place during the last 150 years (Zia, 2003, p.1). Encyclopedia Britannica (1986) describes cable television that generally, a system that distributes television signals by means of coaxial or fibre optic cables. The term also includes systems that distribute signals solely via satellite. Cable television system originated in United States in the early 1950s and was designated to improve reception of commercial network broadcasts in remote and hilly areas. World History of Cable Television:

John walson, an appliance storeowner in a small town of Mahanoy, had difficulty selling television sets to local residents because reception in the areas was poor. The problem seemed to be the location of the town in a valley and nearly 90 air miles from the Philadelphia television transmitters. Naturally, signals could not pass through mountains and clear reception was virtually impossible except on the ridges outside of town. It was frustrating for those who had just purchased an expensive set but not receiving clear transmission. Reasons for poor reception were well-understood. For one thing, the early transmitters were not very powerful. If one lived close to the station, there 10 were few limitations. But for those living some distance away, reception could be poor, the picture was often fuzzy, distorted or faint. Even a passing car could create electrical interference and fill the screen with ‘snow’ or cause the picture to roll. In addition, the fact that television signals travel in a straight line reduced the quality of reception or even made it impossible behind large buildings on the back side of hills or mountains and in similar positions. To solve his problem, Mr. Walson put an antenna on the top of a large utility pole and installed it on the top of a nearby mountain. Television signals were received and transported over twin lead antenna wire down to his store. Once people saw these early results, television sales soared. It became his responsibility to improve the picture quality by using coaxial cable and self-manufactured ‘boosters’(amplifiers to bring cable television to the homes of customers who bought television sets, and as such the cable television was born in June 1948. In the early 1950’s, television was fairly new. Though it had not yet become popular, city department stores displayed many different models for sale. And, like an apartment house where every resident had his/her own television, the rooftops of stores were beginning to resemble forests of antennas for city department stores and apartment buildings. Under this new system, one master antenna (MATV) could be used for all television in the building. His secret: the coaxial cable and signal boosters (amplifiers) capable of carrying multiple signals at once. At about the same time, in the nearby town of Lansford, another appliance salesman named Robert (Bob) Tarleton experienced similar problems as those faced by Mr. Walson. He read about Mr. shapp’s new system and though it worked for apartment houses and department stores, it could work for his own town as well. While the community was only 65...
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