Principles of Event Management
Since the dawn of time, in one way or another, events have existed to mark an important occasion that is to happen. Celebrating the changing of seasons and phases of the moon are all events because it gathers people of a common interest to a specified place at a particular place. Although events have been around for many years, the 1990's saw the events industry emerge. The events industry saw the growth of events related education in colleges and universities. At present times, events have grown in popularity to such a scale, that it is now a global industry. There are different types of event, which include social life cycle events, sporting, cultural, business and fundraising. Events can be divided in terms of size and the impact they make on society economically and socially. These are called Hallmark, Mega and Major Events. A hallmark must earn its name. An event is considered to be so significant in the spirit or ethos of a city or region, that it helps form an identity for that city and region. It also gains widespread recognition. A classic example is the Carnival in Rio. It represents Latin vitality and the exuberance of the city. Social Cycle events include birthdays, anniversaries and funerals. This events occur in accordance to the calendar, for example a person's birthday can only be an event at a specified time of year. Sporting events are categorised into three types, which are Mega events, calendar events, one-off events and showcase events. Mega events are events that are so large that they affect whole economies and obtain media coverage globally. Examples are the Olympics and Fifa World Cup. It is difficult for many other events to be labelled a mega event. Getz (1997) defines a mega event: "those that yield extraordinary high levels of tourism, media coverage and prestige. Their volume should exceed 1 million visits, and their reputation of a must see' event". A smaller version of a mega event is called a Major Event. Major events are capable of attracting significant amount of visitors, media coverage and economic benefits. There are numerous major events particularly in the cultural sector. For example, major musicals such as Cats and Mama Mia receive huge amounts of tourism revenue for London's West End. Glastonbury Festival is a main contender to be categorised as a major event. Festivals itself can indeed be divided into sub sectors. These are festivals that celebrate a particular location, festivals that are art or music orientated and festivals that celebrate the achievements made by a community. The business sector, which includes conferences, exhibitions, corporate and hospitality travel, make up 25% of total tourism in the UK. This equates to an economic impact of £12 billion pounds and is expected to reach to £16 billion over the next decade, according to RS&M research. Around 20,000 journalists, exhibitors and technicians attended the Labour Party Conference held in Bournemouth International Centre in 1999. Conferences can be very diverse and is described as "An event used by any organisation to meet and exchange views and to open an debate. Although generally not limited in time, conferences are usually of short duration with specific objectives". Rogers (1998). Exhibitions are a rapidly growing part of the business sector. Research conducted by the Incorporated Society of British Advertisers, suggests that money spent on marketing for exhibitions has increased by 18% over the past ten years. Exhibitions bring suppliers and services together with buyers who are in a particular industry. A survey held by RS&M who interviewed 77 companies found that exhibitions are the most frequently held event (36%), followed by sporting (14%), corporate hospitality (11%), road and trade shows (9%) and lastly product launches (8%).
Having established the types of events and their impact on society society, it is now important to discuss the event management process....
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