Principles of Scientific Management

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Scientific Management is a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries. Taylor was an American mechanical engineer and a management consultant in his later years. He is often called "The Father of Scientific Management." Taylor was writing at a time when factories were creating big problems for the management. Workmen were quite inefficient. According to Taylor, there were three reasons for the inefficiency. They were the: 1. Deceptive belief that a material increase in the output of each man or each machine in the trade would throw people out of work 2. Defective management systems, which made it necessary for each workman to soldier, or work slowly to protect his own best interests 3. Inefficient rule of thumb methods, which were almost universal in all trades, which cost much wasted effort In this section, Taylor explained his principles of scientific management. Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles: 1) Replace rule of thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. 2) Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past the employee (or workmen) chose his own work and trained himself as best he could. 3) Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task" (Montgomery 1997: 250). 4) Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks. According to F. W. Taylor, the above combination of the initiative of the employee, coupled with the new types of work done...
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