Principles of Scientific Management

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1. Performance Standards
F.W. Taylor found out that there were no scientific performance standards. Taylor introduced Time and Motion Studies to fix performance standards. He fixed performance standards for time, cost, and quality of work, which lead to uniformity of work. 2. Differential Piece Rate System

Under differential piece rate system, a standard output was first fixed. Then two wage rates were fixed as follows :-
Low wage rate was fixed for those workers who did not produce the standard output.
Higher wage rate was fixed for those workers who produced the standard output or who produced more than the standard output. 3. Functional Foremanship
Taylor started "Functional Foremanship". Here, 8 foremen (lower level manager or supervisor) are required to supervise the workers. This is because one foremen cannot be an expert in all the functions. Taylor's functional foremanship consists of two groups of supervisors :-

At the Planning Level or Office Level.
Time and Cost Clerk : This boss prepares the standard time for completing the work and cost of doing that work.
Route Clerk : This boss makes the exact route (way) through which each product has to travel from a raw-ma4terial to a finished product.
Discipline Clerk : This boss looks after the discipline and absenteeism problems in the organisation.
Instruction Card Clerk : The boss gives instructions about how to do a particular work.
At the Doing Level or Factory Level.
Gang Boss : He is responsible for setting up the machines and tools and for direct supervision of workers.
Speed Boss : He is responsible for maintaining a proper speed of work.
Repair Boss : He is responsible for the repairs and maintenance of machines.
Inspector Boss : He is responsible for maintaining the quality of production. 4. Mental Revolution
Taylor introduced the concept of "Mental Revolution". He said that the management and workers should have a positive attitude towards each...
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