Principles of Safeguarding

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Principles of safeguarding and protection in health
And social care

Outcome 1.1
Physical abuse – Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feeling of physical pain, injury or other physical suffering or bodily harm e.g. hitting, punching or kicking. Sexual abuse – Sexual abuse is any sort of non-consensual sexual contact e.g. forcing an individual to take part in any sexual activities or behave in inappropriate ways. Emotional/Psychological abuse – Emotional or psychological abuse is any action which has an adverse effect on an individuals mental well-being, causes suffering and effects their quality and ability to function to their full potential e.g. invoking threats or fears or devaluing individual self-esteem. Financial abuse – The misuse of a persons funds and assets, obtaining property and funds without the persons knowledge and full consent, or if the elderly person is not competent or it is not in their best interests. Institutional abuse – Institutional abuse is the mistreatment of people brought about by poor or inadequate care or support or systematic poor practice that effects the whole care setting. It occurs when the individual’s wishes and needs are sacrificed for the smooth running of a group, service or organisation. Self neglect – Self neglect is any failure of an adult to take care of themselves and that causes, or is reasonably likely to cause within a short period of time serious physical, mental or emotional harm or substantial damage to or loss of assets. Neglect by others – Neglect by others is a passive form of abuse in which someone is responsible to provide care for an individual who is unable to care for themselves, but fails to provide adequate care. Outcome 1.2

Signs and symptoms of:
Physical abuse – Multiple bruising, fractures, burns, fear, depression or assault. Sexual abuse – Loss of sleep, unexplained change in behaviour, soreness, tore stained or bloody underwear, sexual diseases or pregnancy. Emotional / Psychological abuse – Fear, depression, confusion or loss of sleep. Financial abuse – Unexplained withdrawals from the bank, unpaid bills, unexplained shortage of money or unusual activity in bank accounts. Institutional abuse – Inappropriate ways of addressing people, inflexible systems and routines or an unkempt appearance. Neglect – Malnutrition, untreated medical problems, bedsores, confusion or deprivation of meals. Outcome 1.3

Factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse are: * Low self-esteem
* Being abused in the past
* Individuals with substance abuse problems
* Physical ability
* Individuals who are medically dependant
* Individuals age e.g. young or elderly
* Learning difficulties
* Setting and situation
* Mental health illness
Outcome 2.1
If you suspect than an individual is being abused then you must follow policies and procedures in what to do. Do not inform the people who you suspect are involved in the abuse. You need to report your concerns to who ever is in charge and report your concerns straight away. You may need to write a statement, make sure everything written is true and not opinion. You need to make sure everything is kept confidential and use agreed procedures for sharing information on disclosure. Outcome 2.2

If an individual alleges that they are being abused you need to first report it to your manager or senior care staff. You need to show the individual that you are concerned and that they can depend on you, keep calm at all times and always keep an open mind. If possible make a written statement, sign and date it, make sure everything that you write is truthful and not hearsay and make sure evidence is securely stored away. Provide the correct environment for the individual to take to you and make sure that everything that is said is kept confidential between the people that need to know.

Outcome 2.3
Ways to make sure that evidence of abuse is...
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