Principles of Marketing

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  • Topic: José Rizal, Philippines, Philippine Revolution
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  • Published : March 18, 2013
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Principle of Marketing

Marketing involves a range of processes concerned with finding out what consumers want, and then providing it for them. This involves four key elements, which are referred to as the 4Ps. A useful starting point therefore is to carry out market research to find out about customer requirements in relation to the 4Ps. There are two main types of market research - quantitative research involving collecting a lot of information by using techniques such as questionnaires and other forms of survey. Qualitative research involves working with smaller samples of consumers, often asking them to discuss products and services while researchers take notes about what they have to say. The marketing department will usually combine both forms of research. The marketing department will seek to make sure that the company has a marketing focus in everything that it does. It will work very closely with production to make sure that new and existing product development is tied in closely with the needs and expectations of customers. Modern market focused organisations will seek to find out what their customers want. For example, financial service organisations, will want to find out about what sort of accounts customers want to open and the standard of service they expect to get. Retailers like Argos and Homebase will seek to find out about customer preferences for store layouts and the range of goods on offer. Airlines will find out about the levels of comfort that customers desire and the special treatment that they prefer to receive. A useful definition of marketing is the anticipation and identification of customer needs and requirements so as to be able to meet them, make a profit or other key organisational objectives.

The Strategic Planning Process

In today's highly competitive business environment, budget-oriented planning or forecast-based planning methods are insufficient for a large corporation to survive and prosper. The firm must engage in strategic planning that clearly defines objectives and assesses both the internal and external situation to formulate strategy, implement the strategy, evaluate the progress, and make adjustments as necessary to stay on track. A simplified view of the strategic planning process is shown by the following diagram:

The Strategic Planning Process
Mission &
      Objectives      |
|
|
  Environmental  
Scanning|
|
|
Strategy
    Formulation     |
|
|
Strategy
 Implementation  |
|
|
      Evaluation      
& Control|
|

Mission and Objectives
The mission statement describes the company's business vision, including the unchanging values and purpose of the firm and forward-looking visionary goals that guide the pursuit of future opportunities. Guided by the business vision, the firm's leaders can define measurable financial and strategic objectives. Financial objectives involve measures such as sales targets and earnings growth. Strategic objectives are related to the firm's business position, and may include measures such as market share and reputation.

Environmental Scan
The environmental scan includes the following components:
* Internal analysis of the firm
* Analysis of the firm's industry (task environment)
* External macroenvironment (PEST analysis)
The internal analysis can identify the firm's strengths and weaknesses and the external analysis reveals opportunities and threats. A profile of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats is generated by means of a SWOT analysis An industry analysis can be performed using a framework developed by Michael Porter known as Porter's five forces. This framework evaluates entry barriers, suppliers, customers, substitute products, and industry rivalry.

Strategy Formulation
Given the information from the environmental scan, the firm should match its strengths to the opportunities that it has identified, while addressing its weaknesses and...
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