1.0Analysis Using Motivation Theories1
2.0Criticisms of the Management Functions3
3.0Main Problems Defined4
5.1Appendix 1: SWOT Analysis7
1.0Analysis Using Motivation Theories
The Equity Theory states that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs. (Batemen, Snell, 2007) In this case study, Brian is an employee of AMPA and is appointed as the unofficial Help Desk coordinator, however it is clear that there seems to be a lot of inequity in the workplace. Brian was being treated unfairly and was clearly experiencing underpayment inequity in AMPA which exists when a person’s own outcome/input ratio is perceived to be less than that of a referent (Jones, George, 2003). Brian is often made to focus on other work apart from his own and according to the equity theory, since Brian’s input is far more than his outcome, he should be rewarded with higher pay, praise, bonuses, promotions, status perquisites and so on (Kinicki, Williams, 2008). However Brian was more than satisfied to work hard and to perform additional tasks in hopes of being recognized for his efforts and eventually being formally appointed as Help Desk Coordinator. Batemen, Snell (2004) suggests that workers compare the ratio of their own outcomes to inputs against the outcome-to-input ratio of another worker of the same level. Nevertheless, Brian did not attain a promotion due to his direct manager, Trevor who frequently made poor decisions and often blamed Brian for his mistakes. As a result, Trevor lacked technical skills as he did not possess the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise to a firm which led to a lack in conceptual skills due to his inability to make the right decisions as mentioned by Bartol K, Martin D, Tien M, Matthews G (2001). Kinicki et al, (2008) states that positive inequity will arise if workers have put in lesser input but have received more output due to another worker’s input. This can be applied to two scenarios in the case; Brain successfully tending to the queries of the staff and solving them and by Trevor granting probationary staff permanent jobs despite inadequate performances. Furthermore, (Bartol, Tien, Matthews, Sharma, Ritson, Scott-Ladd, 2008) suggests that maintaining self-esteem is very important, so people will maximize outcomes and resist costly changes to input. However, in the passage, Brian is slowly losing confidence and enthusiasm for his job because of poor management which caused Brian to apply for another job elsewhere. The various impacts of inequity derived from this situation is the decline in AMPA’s performance and competitiveness and worst of all the loss of skilled programmers along with Brian. As Hall (2008) notes, a feeling of inequity causes tension and as a consequence of that a person may try to find a new situation with a more favorable balance such as resigning from a job or from the organization altogether.
2 Expectancy Theory
The expectancy theory suggests people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and that they believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining (Griffin, Ebert, 2006). In reference to the case study, workers who set themselves high expectations to achieve valued goals along with great commitment usually lead to increased productivity in an organization (Borders, Earleywine, Huey, 2004). This is true in regards to AMPA and its long-term employee Brain. Managers need to set clear performance expectations and goals and ensure employees by way of encouragement (Hannagan 2002). Trevor, Brian’s line manager did not praise or motivate him but frequently blamed Brain for mistakes that he incurred and did not recognize...