Principles of Management

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Principle: - is any fundamental or significant truth that have been tested over time and found to work. Many managerial thinkers have defined management in their own ways, the most common of which are: a)Management is an individual or a group of persons dedicated to work and make sure that the organisational activities are performed in order to achieve personal and organisational goals.( by smith) b)A body of individuals who make up the upper part of the organisation hierarchy. This includes the supervisors, manager, directors and others. c)Management is active, not theoretical. It is about changing behaviours and making things happen. It is about developing people , working with them reaching objectives and achieving results. In deed all the research in to how managers spend their time reveals that they are creatures of moment, perpetually immersed in the nitty –gritty of making things happen. d)Henry Fayol has proposed that to manage is to: -

To forecast
To command
To coordinate
To control

Fayol also suggests that a set of well-established principles would help concentrate general discussion on management theory. He emphasises, however, that the principles must be flexible and adaptable to changing circumstances. He recognised that there were no limit to the principles but advocated 14 of them.

Division of work/ labour. This means that a worker is given only a small portion of the work in which he becomes a specialist. A high degree of specialisation should lead to efficiency Authority and responsibility: Authority is the right to command and power to exercise obedience in order to get wok done. Responsibility is the accountability of the authority so that the official authority is not misused. Responsibility is the corollary of authority. Discipline: Fayol considered discipline as an outward mark of respect observed in accordance with employment agreement and organisational rules. The management must decide on the most appropriate form of sanctions on cases of offences against discipline. Unity of command: Each organisational member should receive orders from one superior only; if not, authority is undermined and discipline, order and stability threatened. Unity of direction: In order to provide for unity of action, coordination and focusing of efforts, there should be one head and one plan for any group of activities with the same objective. E.g one department, one manager. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interests of one employee or group of employees are subordinate to the interests and goals of the organization. The interest of the Organisation must take priority whenever there is a conflict of interests. Remuneration of personnel: Salaries - the price of services rendered by employees - should be fair and provide satisfaction both to the employee and employer. Centralization: The objective of centralization is the best utilization of personnel. The degree of centralization varies according to the dynamics of each organization. Scalar chain: A chain of authority exists from the highest organizational authority to the lowest ranks. Order: Organizational order for materials and personnel is essential. The right materials and the right employees are necessary for each organizational function and activity. Equity: In organizations, equity is a combination of kindliness and justice. Both equity and equality of treatment should be considered when dealing with employees. Stability of tenure of personnel: To attain the maximum productivity of personnel, a stable work force is needed. Initiative: Thinking out a plan and ensuring its success is an extremely strong motivator. Zeal, energy, and initiative are desired at all levels of the organizational ladder. Esprit de corps: Teamwork is fundamentally important to an organization. Work teams and extensive face-to-face verbal communication...
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